शनिवार, 25 अगस्त 2012

Graphic Communication / Newspaper/Page make up

 


ELEMENTS OF NEWSPAPER PAGE MAKEUP 
Thus far, all the subject matter in this chapter has dealt with the tools and materials available for presenting the reader of a ship or station newspaper with an attractive, interesting and convenient look at the news. Whether you achieve the desired product will depend on how these tools and materials are used in assembling your newspaper.
If you are the person responsible for laying out, making up or actually pasting up your newspaper, you should adopt a basic typographic plan or style. First, read all of the copy being considered for the newspaper. Study the pictures and other artwork closely. Visualize the news story message, or ideas, and the nature of the artwork as a whole. Decide the relative importance of the elements; then put the entire page together using the individual components of newspaper makeup (fig. 8-18).
Makeup creates recognition of a newspaper. A good editor varies the makeup in each issue, so the readers are not bored with the newspaper. On the other hand, each page will resemble the previous editions enough so the reader can immediately identify it.
The following components help the reader identify a newspaper: Nameplate
Flags
Masthead
Headlines
Pictures
Whites, grays and blacks
NAMEPLATE 
The nameplate should be simple in design, attractive, and in harmony with the character of the paper. Its type should either harmonize or contrast with the headline type. The nameplate can combine type and artwork together. The artwork however, should not make the nameplate jumbled and hard to read. Figure 8-19 shows several examples of nameplates.
The nameplate can be made to float on the page. Although a nameplate that runs the entire width of the page can be made to float, a floating nameplate usually occupies two or three columns and is placed anywhere in the upper third of the page.
FLAGS 
A flag of the newspaper is a display used by a newspaper to indicate section pages or special pages, such as editorial, sports and family pages. Just like nameplates, a flag should not dominate its page and should appear above the fold. Flags can also be floated.
HEADLINES 
Headlines, or simply heads, contribute to all five concepts of newspaper design - balance, contrast, rhythm, unity and harmony.
The headline for one story should be separated from that of another. Heads that appear side by side (called ‘Tombstones”) could be read as one head and confuse the reader. Tombstoning also prevents each head from gaining its share of attention.
When headlines and pictures are used together, they should be placed so the reader is not confused by their positions. You should not place a picture between a headline and a story, because the reader might begin reading the cutline thinking it is the first paragraph of the story.
Heads of the same column width should not be placed lower on the page than a smaller one, or higher on the page than a larger one. This does not mean that the bottom of the page cannot contain a large multicolumn head. It only means that heads of the same width should decrease in point size as they descend the page.
Do not run stories out from under their heads. This creates a readability problem by confusing the reader about where to find and finish reading the rest of the story.
A story can be wrapped (to continue a story from one column to the next) under its main head, or lead, to achieve variation. A story is always turned to the right from its main part. A turn running above the headline of the story could confuse the reader and cause the individual to abandon the item.
A story requiring a “jump,” or continuation, to another page should be split in midsentence, never at a period of a paragraph. For example, “(Continued on page , col. ) will direct the reader adequately. The jumped portion should carry a brief head, or key word, taken from the main head to identify it as a continuation. The “jump head” should be keyed to the same type style and face, although it seldom will be in the same type size, as the original headline. Never jump a story on a hyphenated word, or carry over the last line of a paragraph.
PICTURES 
Readability studies have shown that pictures are one of the most popular elements in a newspaper. For that reason alone, important pictures should be large and positioned in a manner that maximizes their display.
Pictures of two-column widths or more should be placed on a page so they stand or hang from something that gives them support. A picture can stand on a headline, another picture or the bottom of the page. A picture can hang from a headline, another picture or the top of the page. A picture of two-column widths or more should not float in copy, but a one-column-wide picture or smaller can float in copy.
Pictures and headlines that are not related should be separated by more than a rule, if the possibility exists that, when placed together, they are humorous or in bad taste.
Avoid any clashing items. For example, do not place an accident story next to a mortuary advertisementIf you run two pictures, two boxes or a picture and a box side by side, except in cases where the subjects are related, they tend to cancel each other out. It is best to separate unrelated artwork with body type.
Reader’s eyes have a tendency to follow the line of sight of people in pictures. Therefore, if people in a picture look off the page, readers will tend to look off the page. To prevent the reader from doing this, the main subjects in pictures should look straight ahead or into the page. This also holds true for pictures showing action. The motion should go toward the center of the page whenever possible. This reader tendency can be used to your advantage. The line of sight and motion can be used to guide the reader’s eye through a page.
Try to avoid running pictures on the horizontal fold of a newspaper, because the area along the fold becomes distorted once the newspaper has been folded.
Do not give a picture more display space than it deserves, especially a “mug shot” (portrait-type, close-up photograph of an individual). Mug shots can float in copy, but it is best if they stand on or hang from something. If a mug shot floats, it is best to float it within a sentence in a paragraph. Mug shots should be accompanied by at least a name line for identification. By omitting the name line, the reader is forced into trying to identify the individual in the picture.
“Thumbnails” also are used in making up newspaper pages. The term refers to half-column mug shots. A thumbnail is best used when it looks into the story or directly out of the page. A name line, in most cases, should also be used with thumbnails.
Newspaper Format
The   three   formats   used   in   ship   and   station newspapers are full format, tabloid and magazine. These formats are shown in figure 8-5 and are described in the following  text. FULL FORMAT A   full-format   (also   known   as   broadsheet) newspaper is one that measures 16 or 17 inches wide and 21 to 22 inches deep. A fill-format newspaper can be made to have five columns, six columns, seven and one-half columns, eight columns or nine columns.
TABLOID 
A  tabloid  newspaper  is  about  half  the  size  of  a full-format newspaper. It measures 10 to 12 inches wide and 14 to 18 inches deep. A tabloid format newspaper can have two, three, four, five, five and one-half and six columns.
NEWSPAPER  DESIGN 
Other  important  considerations  (beyond  the  news gathering,  news  writing  and  copy  editing  aspects covered in the preceding chapters) are the techniques for putting   the   material   together   so   that   your   paper emphasizes  what  is  important.  You  will  also  need  to know what makes an attractive appearance and draws and holds the reader’s eye. All of this is done through good layout and makeup designed to achieve the best overall appearance and style of the publication and to allow the reader to obtain the maximum information in the shortest time. Layout is the planning of the position and page that each piece of copy or art will occupy in your publication. This  includes  your  choosing  the  styles  and  sizes  of headlines desired, the kinds and sizes of type to be used and deciding how to use them, and indicating these plans on the layout sheets. Makeup is normally the execution of that layout by the publisher (the compositor), although sometimes the terms layout and makeup are used interchangeably. For instance,  the  name  “makeup  editor”  is  used  on  some newspapers instead of “layout editor.” THE  DUMMY Indicating on the layout sheet where each element will be placed (sometimes called dummying or roughing in)  may  be  done  as  each  segment  of  material  is forwarded to the publisher. Some publishers will even give you rough proofs of galley type, headlines and art and let you make a paste-up dummy on a layout sheet. Paste-up dummies ensure a high degree of accuracy in page making.
Submission: Saranya, I MJMC, Feb 2012.

Raster and Vector Graphics

Graphics:
                    Graphics  are visual presentations on some surface, such as a wall, canvas, computer screen, paper, or stone to brand, inform, illustrate, or entertain.
                Graphics often combine text, illustration, and color.
Computer graphics:
                    There are two types of computer graphics:
                                           i. Raster graphics
                                           ii. Vector graphics
Raster graphics:
                     *Raster graphics, where each pixel is separately defined (as in a digital photograph).
                     *In computer graphics, a raster graphics image, or bitmap, is a data structure representing a generally rectangular grid of pixels, or points of color, viewable via a monitor, paper, or other display medium.
                     *Raster graphics are resolution dependent.
                  * A raster is a grid of x and y coordinates on a display space. (And for three-dimensional images, a z coordinate.)
                 *A raster image file identifies which of these coordinates to illuminate in monochrome or color values
                 * Raster graphics are digital images represented by a matrix or grid of pixels commonly called a bitmap.
                  *On a Black- and- White system with one bit per pixel,the frame buffer is commonly called BITMAP.for systems with multiple bits per pixel,the frame buffer is called PIXMAP.
                *Each pixel or dot displays a unique color and together all of these colored dots create an image.
               *Raster graphics with a greater number of colors and pixels will require more bits and take up more memory.
               *Typical file formats for raster graphics include .jpg, .gif, .tiff, and .bmp.
                *Since raster graphics are represented in a grid structure, the width and height are usually indicated by the number of rows and columns rather than a particular unit of measurement.
                  *The size of an image might be described as 640 x 480 meaning that there are 640 pixels in a row and 480 pixels in a column.
                   * A higher resolution raster graphic will have smaller pixels that result in a more detailed image.
                     *Black and white raster graphics contain only black and white pixels and each pixel requires just one bit in memory.
                     *A colored raster graphic requires additional bits because three values are necessary to represent each of the red, green, and blue components of the pixel.
                     *The color depth for an image is represented by the number of bits per pixel and as the color depth increases, more colors are available for display.
                     * Raster graphics are only one of the two common graphic types used to digitally represent 2-D images.
                      * Raster graphic is resolution dependent and changes in size will detrimentally affect the visual quality of the image.
                        * Raster graphics are most suitable for photographs and images with continuous tones and shading.
                        * If you blow up a raster graphic, it will look blocky, or “pixelated.
Vector graphics: 
                      *Vector graphics, where mathematical formulas are used to draw lines and shapes, which are then interpreted at the viewer’s end to produce the graphic.
                       *Vector graphics is the creation of digital images through a sequence of commands or mathematical statements that place lines and shapes in a given two-dimensional or three-dimensional space
                       *Vector graphics is the use of geometrical primitives such as points, lines, curves, and shapes or polygon(s), which are all based on mathematical expressions, to represent images in computer graphics.
                     *Vector graphics is based on images made up of vectors.
                     *Vector graphics are comprised of paths, which are defined by a start and end point, along with other points, curves, and angles along the way.A path can be a line, a square, a triangle, or a curvy shape.
                       *These paths can be used to create simple drawings or complex diagrams.
                      *Paths are even used to define the characters of specific typefaces.
                    *Because vector-based images are not made up of a specific number of dots, they can be scaled to a larger size and not lose any image quality.
                       *When you blow up a vector graphic, the edges of each object within the graphic stay smooth and clean.
                        *Common types of vector graphics include Adobe Illustrator, Macromedia Freehand, and EPS files.
                         * Many Flash animations also use vector graphics, since they scale better and typically take up less space than bitmap images.
                       * In physics, a vector is a representation of both a quantity and a direction at the same time.
                     * A vector file is sometimes called a geometric file.
                     * All computer-aided design (CAD), drawing and diagramming programs create vector images.
                      *Vector graphics and “bitmapped graphics” are the two fundamental structures for digital images.
                        *Vector images are very space efficient compared to bitmapped images, and they maintain all their detail when zoomed in and out.
Submitted by Ramya. I MJMC, December 2011


                  
                  

Protecting Artwork

                                                       PROTECTING ARTWORK
1. AVOIDING DAMP, LIGHT AND HEAT;
                                     All too often, pictures are stored in damp basements or leaking attics, or bung in rooms with inappropriate or harmful lighting. They are often displaying or stored away without any means of protection .A few simple precautions can do much to preserve your picture in the best possiblecondion – having  ladoured with love and time on an artwork , it makes sense to look after it.
2. STORING WATERCOLOURS AND DRAWING:
                                 Unmounted watercolors and drawing should not be left unproted   for long, and should be stored in a safe place until such time as you have them framed. They should be stored flat in large drawers or a plan chest, or at least in a portfolio, interleaved with sheets of waxed paper, cellophane or acid-free tissue, to prevent them rubbing together and becoming smudged
3. TRANSPORTING PAINTING:
                                If you need to transport framed painting, you should protect the corners of the frames by padding them out with plastic foam or bubble-wrap, or with cardboard sleeves. This will also prevent the painting leaning flat against each other in storage
4. PROTECTING DRAWING:
                                 Drawing executed in a friable medium, such as charcoal, pastel, contae crayon and chalk, there is a danger of pigment particles drifting down under the glass and soling the mount board
 Protecting oil-pastel drawings
Unlike other pastel, oil pastels do not require fixing, because the blend of pigments, fat and wax never fully dries. The most effective and lasting protection is to mount oil- pastel drawing under glass
APPLYING FIXATIVE
Pin your finished work vertically and hold the atomizer at least 30(12win) away   the image, pointing directly at it
Artwork Copyrights in the Digital Life:
Through the years and getting into the digital life, this problem has not yet been solved. Furthermore, the web has complicated the problem because it allows anybody to steal your idea or artwork by simply right-click and save it.
Many artists limit their presence in the web because of this situation which prevents them from getting more exposure about their works or getting opportunities in a wide market that connect artists and customers from around the world. Actually, I doubt that any artist would like to share work in one of these creative social networks such as Deviant Art and Behance that allows you to upload your artwork and get feedback and criticism. These networks fuel the creative industry by sharing ideas and getting inspiration which are one of the most important
 Submitted by Elamparithi, I MJMC, April, 2012.

Poster Designing

POSTER
              A poster is any piece of printed paper designed to be attached to a wall or vertical surface. Typically posters include both textual and graphic elements, although a poster may be either wholly graphical or wholly text. Posters are designed to be both eye-catching and informative. Posters may be used for many purposes. They are a frequent tool of advertisers (particularly of events, musicians and films), propagandistsprotestors and
Types of posters
Propaganda and political posters, Movie posters, Travel posters, Railway posters, Event posters, Boxing posters, Concert posters, Band/music posters,  Backlight poster, Pin-up posters, Affirmation posters, Fanposter.
Publications
Book posters, Comic book posters, Educational posters
A GREAT POSTER IS…
readable,
Readability is a measure of how easily the ideas flow from one item to the next. Text that has lots of grammatical problems, complex or passive sentence structure, and misspellings is “hard to read”.
legible,
If a text is legible, it can be deciphered. For example, an old book may not be legible if the paper has corroded or the lettering has faded. A common error in poster presentations is use of fonts that are too small to be read from 6-10 feet away, a typical distance for reading a poster.
Spatial organization makes the difference between reaching 95% rather than just 5% of your audience: time spent hunting for the next idea or piece of data is time taken away from thinking about the science.
Succinct
Studies show that you have only 11 seconds to grab and retain your audience’s attention so make the punchline prominant and brief. Most of your audience is going to absorb only the punchline. Those who are directly involved in related research will seek you out anyway and chat with you at length so you can afford to leave out all the details and tell those who are really interested the “nitty gritty” later.
An effective poster operates on multiple levels…
   source of information
   conversation starter
   advertisement of your work
   summary of your work
Elements
Line - In nature, there are no lines per se. Man has created line as the simplest way to communicate visually. Our eyes see boundaries of objects in terms of lines, and we have been taught to draw using line to delineate shape and form. Lines can be long, thin, fat, or ragged. The letters we use in our posters are made up of lines and can be used to visually stimulate a response to the product that is being advertised or promoted.
Shapes are two dimensional spaces defined by a line or other boundaries. There are geometric shapes and organic shapes.
Form adds depth or volume to a shape. So form can be thought of as three-dimensional shapes. On the flat surface of the poster, form is achieved by the use of light and shade (value).
Value refers to light or the absence of light. A black object on a black surface can only be perceived by the amount of light coming from its surface. To show objects on a white poster, it is necessary to create a contrast to the white paper by using various shades of black, gray, and colors.
Color - The properties of color include hue, values, and intensities. Just as value above, these variations of color are necessary to add emphasis, to change mood, and to create visual tension in a poster.
Texture is the tactile quality of visual expression. Texture can be either real or implied and is created by using other elements such as line, color, and value.
Space is the area used to make the design. In most cases, we are talking about the size, shape, and direction of the surface (paper, etc.) used for the poster. This is often referred to as the format for the design. The use of space is very important. One thing is always necessary–using the space provided so that the viewer can easily “read” the message of the poster. That means that there must be a margin around the poster and that the words and images should be clear and the spacing balanced so the viewer’s eye can travel through the work to “read” the visual message.
poster making. The guide below will go over everything you need to know about poster making. Whether it is a poster for a school project, a fundraising poster, yard sale or other groups trying to communicate a message. Posters are also used for reproductions of artwork, particularly famous works, and are generally low-cost compared to original artwork. Another type of poster is the educational poster, which may be about a particular subject for educational purposesgarage sale sign, or a poster to cheer on your favorite sports team the following lessons will help poster you make a poster easier, faster, and better!
Lettering
Color,
Poster Presentations
Creative Ideas
Brain Storming

Print and Outdoor Design Layout

Print and Outdoor Design ad Layout — Presentation Transcript
1.     Advanced Design Strategies Use variety to spice up your ads Visual boredom occurs when predictability and mirror-like symmetry dominate a document Carefully select backgrounds to accentuate figures Use the golden rectangle
2.    Introduction Effective ad design and layout starts with a clear understanding of a project’s goals and written content. Headlines, body copy and assorted visuals must already be figured out before you begin
3.    Basic Design Strategies Keep your layouts simple E.g. Large picture at the top, headline underneath, body copy in 2 or 3 columns under the headline, logo or address in the bottom right-hand corner.
4.    Basic Design Strategies Create Unity Have one central focus or focal point where the eye has the tendency to concentrate on which is usually the visual or even the headline. Create Asymmetrical Balance Seesaw analogy
5.   Basic Design Strategies Create Contrast Using contrasting sizes, shapes, lines, typestyles and figures draw attention to key items you want to emphasize
 6.   Basic Design Strategies Create Emphasis through Proportion Important ideas or figures should be emphasized by making them larger, bolder, brighter or essentially different from the main components of the rest of the ads.
7. Grouping Design Strategies Group by using similar shapes, sizes, textures and colors Break up long lists Group ideas in ones, twos or threes By finding relationships between them and making those relationships obvious E.g. positive-negative, graphics-words-numbers Up to three only, 4 is visually too much
8.Color Design Strategies Black and white is boring. Color is EXCITING . Excessive color detracts from copy Color works because of its contrast with non-colored areas; use it in one or two strong clustered areas rather than scattering it through out your ad.
9.Photo Design Strategies Photo design and layout strategies center on two ideas: Make the mind group things to increase communicability Bring items in and out of focus to suggest and emphasize importance
10.Photo Design Strategies Before taking a shot decide on: The best shape and proportion to suit your subject How main figures should interact with the frame edges How much detail you want in the frame Your central point of interest How you want to link images together What your point of view will be
Submitted by Karthiyayini, I MJMC, April 2012.

Graphics

Graphics (from Greek-graphikos) are visualpresentations on some surface, such as a wall, canvas, computer screen, paper, or stone to brand, inform, illustrate, or entertain. Examples are photographs, drawings, Line Art, graphs, diagrams, typography, numbers, symbols, geometricdesigns, maps, engineering drawings, or other images. Graphics often combine text, illustration, and color. Graphic designmay consist of the deliberate selection, creation, or arrangement of typography alone, as in a brochure, flier, poster, web site, or book without any other element. Clarity or effective communication may be the objective, association with other cultural elements may be sought, or merely, the creation of a distinctive style.
Graphics can be functional or artistic. The latter can be a recorded version, such as a photograph, or an interpretation by a scientist to highlight essential features, or an artist, in which case the distinction with imaginary graphics may become blurred.
History
The earliest graphics known to anthropologists studying prehistoric periods are cave paintingsand markings on boulders, bone, ivory, and antlers, which were created during the Upper Paleolithic period from 40,000–10,000 B.C.or earlier. Many of these were found to record astronomical, seasonal, and chronological details. Some of the earliest graphics and drawings known to the modern world, from almost 6,000 years ago, are that of engraved stone tabletsand ceramic cylinder seals, marking the beginning of the historic periods and the keeping of records for accounting and inventory purposes. Records from Egypt predate these and papyruswas used by the Egyptiansas a material on which to plan the building of pyramids; they also used slabs of limestoneand wood. From 600–250 BC, the Greeks played a major role in geometry. They used graphics to represent their mathematical theories such as the Circle Theorem and the Pythagorean Theorem.
In art, “graphics” is often used to distinguish work in a monotone and made up of lines, as opposed to painting.
DRAWING
Drawing generally involves making marks on a surface by applying pressure from a tool, or moving a tool across a surface. Common tools are graphitepencils, pen and ink, inkedbrushes, wax color pencils, crayons, charcoals, pastels, and markers. Digital tools which simulate the effects of these are also used. The main techniques used in drawing are line drawing, hatching, crosshatching, random hatching, scribbling, stippling, blending, and shading.
Drawing is generally considered distinct from painting, in which colored pigmentsare suspended in a liquid mediumand are usually applied with a brush. Notable great drawers include Michelangelo, Rembrandt, Raphaeland Leonardo da Vinci.
Many people choose drawing as a main art style, or they may use it to make sketches for paintings, sculptures and other types of art. The other term is Engineering Graphics, preferably the language of engineers that simulates Three Dimensional capability of engineer to plan and Implement his ideas. It comprises Projection, Development, Perspective, Section, Intersection, and Isometric ideations.
Elements of Graphic Design

The Elements of Graphic Design
The elements of graphic design are used, and often combined, to create graphic works. They should not be confused with principles of design, such as balance and white space, but rather components such as color, type and images. Presented here is a list of the most commonly used elements in graphic design.
Shapes
From ancient pictographs to modern logos, shapes are at the root of design. They are used to establish layouts, create patterns, and build countless elements on the page. With graphics software such as Illustrator, creating and manipulating shapes is easier than ever, giving designers the freedom to create them at will.
Lines
Lines are used to divide space, direct the eye, and create forms. At the most basic level, straight lines are found in layouts to separate content, such as in magazine, newspaper, and website designs. This can of course go much further, with curved, dotted, and zigzag lines used as the defining elements on a page and as the basis for illustrations and graphics. Often, lines will be implied, meaning other elements of design will follow the path of line, such as type on a curve.
Color
Color is an interesting element of graphic design because it can be applied to any other element, changing it dramatically. It can be used to make an image stand out, to show linked text on a website, and to evoke emotion. Graphic designers should combine their experience with color with an understanding of color theory.
Type
Type, of course, is all around us. In graphic design, the goal is to not to just place some text on a page, but rather to understand and use it effectively for communication. Choice of fonts (typefaces), size, alignment, color, and spacing all come into play. Type can be taken further by using it to create shapes and images.
Art, Illustration & Photography
A powerful image can make or break a design. Photographs, illustrations and artwork are used to tell stories, support ideas, and grab the audience’s attention, so the selection is important. Graphic designers can create this work on their own, commission an artist or photographer, or purchase it at all price levels on many websites.
Texture
Texture can refer to the actual surface of a design or to the visual appearance of a design. In the first case, the audience can actually feel the texture, making it unique from the other elements of design. Selection of paper and materials in package design can affect actual texture. In the second case, texture is implied through the style of design. Rich, layered graphics can create visual texture that mirrors actual texture.
Source:
Jim Krause. “Design Basics Index.” HOW Design Books, 2004.
Poppy Evans, Mark A. Thomas. “Exploring the Elements of Design” Second Edition. Thomson Delmar Learning, 2008.
The Elements of Design
Get a better understanding of the basics of graphic design by studying the elements and principles of graphic design that govern effective design and page layout. Graphic design is the process and art of combining text and graphics and communicating an effective message in the design of logos, graphics, brochures, newsletters, posters, signs, and any other type of visual communication. Designers achieve their goals by utilizing the elements and principles of graphic design.
By following each of two learning paths on these concepts of graphic design basics and their application in modern desktop publishing, those with no formal graphic design training can improve their page layout and text compositions.
Although individual lessons within these two Graphic Design Basics classes can be taken out of order, I recommend following the lessons sequentially to get the full benefit.
1. The building blocks of design are defined and illustrated in these lessons and exercises - including lines, shapes, and texture. Explore each element individually and as a part of the whole.
2. Learn how to use alignment, contrast, white space, and other principles of graphic design to create effective page compositions through these graphic design lessons and exercises.
Although individual lessons can be taken out of order, I recommend following the Graphic Design Basics course and these lessons on the elements of design sequentially to get the full benefit.
Building Blocks of Design
The first class describes the 5 elements of design: lines, shapes, mass, texture, and color. Also describes other elements sometimes included as basic building blocks.
Lines
Everyone knows what a line is, right? Look more closely at the great variety of lines, straight, curved, thick, thin, solid, and not-solid.
Shapes
Squares (and rectangles), triangles, and circles are the three basic shapes. Examine their role in design including the psychology of shapes in logo design. Class also touches on freeform shapes.
Mass
How big is it? Take a look at mass or visual weight of graphic and text elements. This class includes a large section on size and measurements for type and paper and images.
Texture
In addition to the actual texture of the paper we print on, look at the textures we create through techniques such as embossing and the visual texture created with certain graphics techniques.
Color
What is the meaning of red? Which colors go well together? Color symbolism and association is the primary focus of this class. It also touches briefly on the mechanics of color reproduction on the Web and in print.
PRINTMAKING
In the West the main techniques have been woodcut, engravingand etching, but there are many others.
ETCHING
Etching is an intaglio method of printmaking in which the image is incised into the surface of a metal plate using an acid.The acid eats the metal, leaving behind roughened areas, or, if the surface exposed to the acid is very thin, burning a line into the plate. The use of the process in printmaking is believed to have been invented by Daniel Hopfer(c. 1470–1536) of Augsburg, Germany, who decorated armour in this way.
LINE ART
Line art is a rather non-specific term sometimes used for any image that consists of distinct straight and curved lines placed against a (usually plain) background, without gradations in shade (darkness) or hue (color) to represent two-dimensional or three-dimensional objects.Line art is usually monochromatic, although lines may be of different colors.
ILLUSTRATION
An illustrationof a character from a story; also, an illustration of illustrations
Illustrations can be used to display a wide range of subject matter and serve a variety of functions, such as:
  • giving faces to characters in a story
  • displaying a number of examples of an item described in an academic textbook (e.g. A Typology)
  • visualizing step-wise sets of instructions in a technical manual
  • communicating subtle thematic tone in a narrative
  • linking brands to the ideas of human expression, individuality and creativity
  • making a reader laugh or smile for fun (to make laugh) funny
GRAPHS
A graph or chart is a type of information graphic that represents tabular, numeric data.Charts are often used to make it easier to understand large quantities of data and the relationships between different parts of the data.
DIAGRAMS
A diagram is a simplified and structured visual representation of concepts, ideas, constructions, relations, statistical data, etc., used to visualize and clarify the topic.
SYMBOLS
A symbol, in its basic sense, is a representation of a concept or quantity; i.e., an idea, object, concept, quality, etc. In more psychological and philosophical terms, all concepts are symbolic in nature, and representations for these concepts are simply token artifacts that are allegoricalto (but do not directly codify) a symbolic meaning, or symbolism.
GEOMETRIC DESIG MAPS
A map is a simplified depiction of a space, a navigational aid which highlights relations between objects within that space. Usually, a map is a two-dimensional, geometrically accurate representationof a three-dimensional space.
PHOTOGRAPHY
One difference between photography and other forms of graphics is that a photographer, in principle, just records a single moment in reality, with seemingly no interpretation.
ENGINEERING DRAWINGS
Image of a part represented in First Angle Projection
An engineering drawing is a type of drawingthat is technical in nature, used to fully and clearly define requirements for engineereditems. It is usually created in accordance with standardized conventions for layout, nomenclature, interpretation, appearance (such as typefacesand line styles), size, etc.
COMPUTER GRAPHICS
There are two types of computer graphics: raster graphics, where each pixel is separately defined (as in a digital photograph), and vector graphics, where mathematical formulas are used to draw lines and shapes, which are then interpreted at the viewer’s end to produce the graphic. Using vectors results in infinitely sharp graphics and often smaller files, but, when complex, vectors take time to render and may have larger file sizes than a raster equivalent.
WEB GRAPHICS
Signature art used on web forums
In the 1990s, Internet speeds increased, and Internet browsers capable of viewing images were released, the first being Mosaic. Websites began to use the GIFformat to display small graphics, such as banners, advertisements and navigation buttons, on web pages. Modern web browserscan now display JPEG, PNGand increasingly, SVGimages in addition to GIFs on web pages. SVG, and to some extent VML, support in some modern web browsers have made it possible to display vector graphicsthat are clear at any size. Pluginsexpand the web browser functions to display animated, interactive and 3-D graphics contained within file formats such as SWFand X3D.
Source: wikipedia
Submitted by Kirubakaran.R, I MJMC, December 2011

Design and Layout

DSEIGN & LAYOUT
INTRODUCTION
Design as a noun informally refers to a plan or convention for the construction of an object or a system (as in architectural blueprints, engineering drawing, business process, circuit diagrams and sewing patterns) while “to design” refers to making this plan.
DEFINITION OF DESIGN
 No generally-accepted definition of “design” exists, and the term has different connotations in different fields (see design disciplines below). However, one can also design by directly constructing anobject (as in pottery, engineering, management, cowboy coding andgraphic design).
More formally design has been defined as follows.
A specification of an object, manifested by an agent, intended to accomplish goals, in a particular environment, using a set of primitive components, satisfying a set of requirements, subject to constraints;
to create a design, in an environment (where the designer operates)
Another definition for design is a roadmap or a strategic approach for someone to achieve a unique expectation. It defines thespecifications, plans, parameters, costs, activities, processes and how and what to do within legal, political, social, environmental, safety and economic constraints in achieving that objective.
Here, a “specification” can be manifested as either a plan or a finished product and “primitives” are the elements from which the design object is composed.
With such a broad denotation, there is no universal language or unifying institution for designers of all disciplines. This allows for many differing philosophies and approaches toward the subject (see Philosophies and studies of design, below).
The person designing is called a designer, which is also a term used for people who work professionally in one of the various design areas, usually also specifying which area is being dealt with (such as a fashion designer, concept designer or web designer).
A designer’s sequence of activities is called a design process.
 The scientific study of design is called design science.
Designing often necessitates considering the aesthetic, functional, economic and sociopolitical dimensions of both the design object and design process. It may involve considerable research, thought,modeling, interactive adjustment, and re-design.
Meanwhile, diverse kinds of objects may be designed, including clothing, graphical user interfaces, skyscrapers, corporate identities, business processes and even methods of designing.
                                               LAYOUT
Page layout
Comprehensive layout
In computer graphics, another name for a scene used to render 2D/3D graphics or animation Layout (computing), software that automatically calculates the positions of objects
Automobile layout
Integrated circuit layout
Keyboard layout
Model railroad layout
Layout (fabrication), the transfer of a design onto a workpiece
Layout, an alternative name for the off-side rule in programming language syntax.
In an industrial plant, the way facilities are placed according to a plant layout study Layout (gymnastics), a position in which the gymnast’s body is completely stretched In Ultimate (sport), an attempt to catch the flying disc involving a jump that results in a horizontal landing
Process layout, the floor plan of a plant, where the machines are grouped according to their functions
PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN AND LAYOUT
This section addresses the fundamental themes of page layout and design:
Purpose and Audience
Organizing Information
Getting Their Attention
Balance
Alignment
Repetition
Emphasis
Proximity
Purpose and Audience
Approach page layout the same way that you do writing: determine your audience, define your purpose, and communicate your message. When you’re writing, you present information in a logical order, so do the same when you lay out the page.
View Audience Guide
View Purpose Guide
Organizing Information
Photographs, pull-quotes, decks, and headlines help you tell the story. Other elements such as subheads, boxes, rules, and white space help you organize the story.
For example, if you laid out three short articles on the same page,
you would use rules, white space, and headlines to show readers that the articles were separate, not related.
A good layout improves readability by arranging text and graphics in alogical order. To illustrate this point, let’s look at the following
flyer: Example.
Every time you place a textual or graphic element on the page, you are making a rhetorical decision, and where you place that element depends on its relationship to the other pieces.
When you’re writing, you organize sentences and paragraphs in alogical sequence so that readers will understand your message. You should approach layout the same way.
Just remember that page design is a flexible process. There are no hard and fast rules, just guidelines. Keep good communication with readers as your top priority, and you will make the right design choices.
Getting Their Attention
In today’s media-intensive culture, people often decide that reading an ad, brochure, or newsletter is not worth their time, so even if your publication is important, it may end up in the wastebasket. An unusual design, however, can spark their interest. Even the mostsophisticated readers get bored with staid designs.
Bottom line: grab their attention first, and then keep them reading.
Jan V. White, author of Editing by Design: A Guide to Effective Word-and-Picture Communication for Editors and Designers, says that readers often look through magazines from back to front (and newsletters are specialized magazines), so you should use a hook tocapture people’s attention.
A hook is anything that contrasts against the uniformity of the text such as a photo, graphic, masthead, or a pull-quote hanging in a column of white space. Everything from the text to the paper it’s printed on affects whether or not your publication is read withinterest, so be creative.
We just have one word of caution. Readability. An effective page layout improves reader comprehension, so you have to balance the imaginative elements with the functional elements. In other words, a splashy graphic laid out at an unexpected angle is eye-catching, butthree columns of centered text is a nuisance.
Good page design balances function with form, consistency with contrast, and places successful communication with the reader above all other considerations. Think of layout as a jigsaw puzzle. Every piece fits together to make the whole.
Balance
Balance is another word for concerns about symmetry and asymmetry.
Symmetry provides stability and rest for the eye, while asymmetry creates tension and visual interest. Finding ways to create balance often depends on the piece.
In a newsletter, for instance, a horizontal rule running along the top of the page contrasts against the vertical columns of text, adding an element of asymmetry to the page.
Alignment
Unify the appearance of your publication by aligning the elements on individual pages and creating strong page-to-page alignments, as well.
In newsletters, for example, align the tops of photographs with the x-height (the top of the small case letters in a line of text) in the adjacent column, and give headlines the same alignment from page to page.In the first example below (a flyer), the elements on the page are not aligned with each other.
The text block in the upper left-hand corner is justified, and the other text block is centered, while the graphic element seems to hang in the middle of the page. This is messy looking.
In this second example above, the look is improved because both text blocks are justified against a boundary of white space, and the graphic is aligned with the block in the upper left-hand corner. In this third example, the look is further improved because the graphic is aligned with both the upper and lower text blocks.
Alignment ties all the elements on a page together and unifies the publication as a whole.
Repetition
Repetition of key elements (logo, box, rules, graphics etc.,) from page to page unifies the appearance of your publication.
In a newsletter, for example, you might place the company logo at the bottom of every page, or in a brochure you might repeat a small graphic element in a variety of places. We used star shapes as backgrounds for drop caps and pull-quotes on every page of the 1997
Freestone
However, repetition without variety becomes monotonous, so use a photo or graphic to add interest to a page. The repetitive elements create visual coherence, while the occasional incongruous element creates contrast, the visual spice.
Emphasis
Use a hook to get the reader’s attention. Anything from an interesting photo or graphic to a pull-quote isolated in a column of white space can catch the reader’s eye.
When we communicate orally, we emphasize ideas by changing our tone of voice. In layout, a hook serves the same purpose. It tells the reader that something is important. Emphasis can be created in different ways. Text in a large point size, for example, shouts at the reader:
“I’m important! Read me now.” You’re only limited by your imagination.
Proximity
Place related information in proximity, and separate unrelated information with white space, rules, and borders.
In the flyer below, the first two blocks of information both have subheadings in 18-point Helvetica, making them of equal importance,but the white space between the blocks makes it obvious that they’re unrelated.
Bullet items appear beneath each subheading, calling attention to the individual points, and their proximity shows that they’re closely related. Finally, at the bottom of the flyer, the company name is placed in proximity to the address and phone number because those areall related elements.By first grouping related information and then separating the groups with white space, rules, or borders, you organize information and make the reader’s job easier.

Language for designing
THE POSTSCRIPT LANGUAGE
The postscript page description language dominates the world of desktop process. It has become the “defacto” standard method of communicating pages created on the desktop to an output device and is increasingly being used as a way of transferring graphics and documents between different applications and platforms. While a detailed understanding of the language is not essential to these activities, awareness of the main concepts is useful to be able to work productively and avoid output problems. PostScript is essentially a graphical programming language used to create precise descriptions of graphical objects for accurate transfer to an output device.
A fundamental strength of the language, and the main reason that it has eclipsed alternative page description languages, is its concept of device independence. Graphical objects are defined within a limitless coordinate system, and it is not until the page is output that it takes on the finite resolution of the specific output device. Device independence allows pages to be printed at the highest resolution available on the printer or image setter that is used to output them.
Code that is written in a programming language is turned into series of low-level instructions by either a complier or an interpreter. Compilers are used by programmers to translate code directly into low- level instructions and the resulting programs can be executed on any compatible computer platform.
An interpreter is normally part of the environment in which the program is executed. It accepts the code produced in a programming language and translates it line into low –level instructions. The interpreter comes across a valid instruction that it has all the necessary information for, the instruction is executed.
Postscript language code is written not by a human programmer, but by another program (the user application). When application’s print function is invoked, Postscript code is generated and sent to an output device. Here the device’s interpreter translates the code into low-level instructions that executes, producing a raiser image of the page. Compared with more general purpose programming languages such as C++, Postscript is a relatively simple language.
Postscript was first developed in 1985 by Adobe Systems, as one of several languages, such as Hewlett Packard’s Printer Control Language (PCL),still exist, though they are of little interest to the graphic arts as they are unable to support high-resolution output devices . Postscript was widely adopted by the nascent desktop publishing market, but as DTP matured the weaknesses of the original Postscript language in controlling color and half tone screening become a barrier to further adoption until language extensions were developed for these purposes.
Postscript achieves device independence for page descriptions (and all the separate elements that comprise them, such as graphics, fonts , colors, and so on) by maintaining a clear distinction between user space, where documents are created , and device space, where they are output. Page descriptions remain in user space until they are actually output.
Reference:  Digital Color Printing Technology
Author     :   Bishwanath Chakravarty – CHINJU LAL

Desk top Publishing

Desktop publishing (also known as DTP) is the creation of documents using page layout software on a personal computer.
The term has been used for publishing at all levels, from small-circulation documents such as local newsletters to books, magazines and newspapers. However the term implies a more professional-looking end result, with a more complex layout, than word processing, and so when introduced in the 1980s was often used in connection with homes and small organizations that could not previously produce publication-quality documents themselves.
History
Desktop publishing began in 1985 with the introduction of Mac Publisher, the first WYSIWYG layout program, which ran on the original 128K Macintosh computer. (Desktop typesetting, with only limited page makeup facilities, had arrived in 1978–9 with the introduction of Tax, and was extended in the early 1980s by Latex.) The DTP market exploded in 1985 with the introduction in January of the Apple LaserWriter printer, and later in July with the introduction of PageMaker software from Aldus which rapidly became the DTP industry standard software.
Before the advent of desktop publishing, the only option available to most persons for producing typed (as opposed to handwritten) documents was a typewriter, which offered only a handful of typefaces (usually fixed-width) and one or two font sizes. Indeed, one popular desktop publishing book was actually titled The Mac is not a typewriter.[1] The ability to create WYSIWYG page layouts on screen and then print pages containing text and graphical elements at crisp 300 dpi resolution was revolutionary for both the typesetting industry and the personal computer industry. Newspapers and other print publications made the move to DTP-based programs from older layout systems like Atex and other such programs in the early 1980s.
The term “desktop publishing” is attributed to Aldus Corporation founder Paul Brainerd,[2] who sought a marketing catch-phrase to describe the small size and relative affordability of this suite of products in contrast to the expensive commercial phototypesetting equipment of the day.
By the standards of today, early desktop publishing was a primitive affair. Users of the PageMaker-LaserWriter-Macintosh 512K system endured frequent software crashes,[3] cramped display on the Mac’s tiny 512 x 342 1-bit monochrome screen, the inability to control letter spacing, kerning (the addition or removal of space between individual characters in a piece of typeset text to improve its appearance or alter its fit) and other typographic features, and discrepancies between the screen display and printed output. However, it was a revolutionary combination at the time, and was received with considerable acclaim.
Behind-the-scenes technologies developed by Adobe Systems set the foundation for professional desktop publishing applications. The LaserWriter and LaserWriter Plus printers included high quality, scalable Adobe PostScript-fonts built into their ROM memory. The LaserWriter’s PostScript capability allowed publication designers to proof files on a local printer then print the same file at DTP service bureaus using optical resolution 600+ ppi PostScript-printers such as those from Linotronic. Later, the Macintosh II was released which was much more suitable for desktop publishing because of its greater expandability, support for large color multi-monitor displays, and its SCSI storage interface which allowed fast, high-capacity hard drives to be attached to the system.
Although Macintosh-based systems would continue to dominate the market, in 1986, the GEM-based Ventura Publisher was introduced for MS-DOS computers. While PageMaker’s pasteboard metaphor closely simulated the process of creating layouts manually, Ventura Publisher automated the layout process through its use of tags/style sheets and automatically generated indices and other body matter. This made it suitable for manuals and other long-format documents. Desktop publishing moved into the home market in 1986 with Professional Page for the Amiga, Publishing Partner (now PageStream) for the Atari ST, GST’s Timeworks Publisher on the PC and Atari ST and Calamus for the Atari TT030. Even for 8-bit computers like the Apple II and Commodore 64 software was published: Home Publisher, The Newsroom and geoPublish.
During its early years, desktop publishing acquired a bad reputation as a result of untrained users who created poorly-organized ransom note effect layouts — similar criticism would be levied again against early Web publishers a decade later. However, some were able to realize truly professional results.
Once considered a primary skill, increased accessibility to more user-friendly DTP software has made DTP a secondary skill to art direction, graphic design, multimedia development, marketing communications, administrative careers and advanced high school literacy in thriving economies.[clarification needed] DTP skill levels range from what may be learned in a few hours (e.g. learning how to put clip art in a word processor) to what requires a college education and years of experience (e.g. advertising agency positions). The discipline of DTP skills range from technical skills such as prepress production and programming to creative skills such as communication design and graphic image development.
Terminology
There are two types of pages in desktop publishing, electronic pages and virtual paper pages to be printed on physical paper pages. All computerized documents are technically electronic, which are limited in size only by computer memory or computer data storage space.
Virtual paper pages will ultimately be printed, and therefore require paper parameters that coincide with international standard physical paper sizes such as “A4,” “letter,” etc., if not custom sizes for trimming. Some desktop publishing programs allow custom sizes designated for large format printing used in posters, billboards and trade show displays. A virtual page for printing has a predestinated size of virtual printing material and can be viewed on a monitor in WYSIWYG format. Each page for printing has trim sizes (edge of paper) and a printable area if bleed printing is not possible as is the case with most desktop printers.
A web page is an example of an electronic page that is not constrained by virtual paper parameters. Most electronic pages may be dynamically re-sized, causing either the content to scale in size with the page or causing the content to re-flow.
Master pages are templates used to automatically copy or link elements and graphic design styles to some or all the pages of a multipage document. Linked elements can be modified without having to change each instance of an element on pages that use the same element. Master pages can also be used to apply graphic design styles to automatic page numbering.
Page layout is the process by which the elements are laid on the page orderly, aesthetically, and precisely. Main types of components to be laid out on a page include text, linked images that can only be modified as an external source, and embedded images that may be modified with the layout application software. Some embedded images are rendered in the application software, while others can be placed from an external source image file. Text may be keyed into the layout, placed, or (with database publishing applications) linked to an external source of text which allows multiple editors to develop a document at the same time.
Graphic design styles such as color, transparency, and filters, may also be applied to layout elements. Typography styles may be applied to text automatically with style sheets. Some layout programs include style sheets for images in addition to text. Graphic styles for images may be border shapes, colors, transparency, filters, and a parameter designating the way text flows around the object called “wraparound” or “runaround.”
Comparisons
With word processing
While desktop publishing software still provides extensive features necessary for print publishing, modern word processors now have publishing capabilities beyond those of many older DTP applications, blurring the line between word processing and desktop publishing.
In the early days of graphical user interfaces, DTP software was in a class of its own when compared to the fairly spartan word processing applications of the time. Programs such as WordPerfect and WordStar were still mainly text-based and offered little in the way of page layout, other than perhaps margins and line spacing. On the other hand, word processing software was necessary for features like indexing and spell checking, features that are common in many applications today.
As computers and operating systems have become more powerful, vendors have sought to provide users with a single application platform that can meet all needs.
With other electronic layout software
In modern usage, DTP is not generally said to include tools such as TeX or troff, though both can easily be used on a modern desktop system and are standard with many Unix-like operating systems and readily available for other systems. The key difference between electronic typesetting software and DTP software is that DTP software is generally interactive and WYSIWYG in design, while other electronic typesetting software, such as TeX, LaTeX and other variants, tends to operate in batch mode, requiring the user to enter the processing program’s markup language without immediate visualization of the finished product. This kind of workflow is less user-friendly than WYSIWYG, but more suitable for conference proceedings and scholarly articles as well as corporate newsletters or other applications where consistent, automated layout is important.
One of the early and comprehensive reference books on the art of Desktop Publishing is Desktop Publishing For Everyone by K.S.V. Menon. This publication deals with virtually every facet of publishing and nearly all tools available as at the time of the publishing of this book in the year 2000. It is currently out of print.
There is some overlap between desktop publishing and what is known as Hypermedia publishing (i.e. Web design, Kiosk, CD-ROM). Many graphical HTML editors such as Microsoft FrontPage and Adobe Dreamweaver use a layout engine similar to a DTP program. However, some Web designers still prefer to write HTML without the assistance of a WYSIWYG editor, for greater control and because these editors often result in code bloat.

DTP applications
For a more comprehensive list, see List of desktop publishing software.
Aldus Personal Press
Adobe Frame Maker
Adobe In Design
Adobe PageMaker
Adobe Home Publisher
CorelDraw
Corel Ventura
Fat paint (Web-based application)
studio Publisher
Microsoft Office Publisher
OpenOffice.org / LibreOffice
Page Stream (used to be “Publishing Partner”)
PTC Arbor text
QuarkXPress
Ready,Set,Go
Scribes
Serif Page Plus
Desktop publishing is a term coined after the development of a specific type of software. It’s about using that software to combine and rearrange text and images and creating digital files.
Before the invention of desktop publishing software the tasks involved in desktop publishing were done manually, by a variety of people and involved both graphic design and prepress tasks which sometimes leads to confusion about what desktop publishing is and how it is done.
desktop publishing is the use of the computer and software to create visual displays of ideas and information. Desktop publishing documents may be for desktop or commercial printing or electronic distribution including PDF, slide shows, email newsletters, and the Web.
OLD / TRADITIONAL DEFINITION: Desktop publishing is the use of the computer and specialized software to create documents for desktop or commercial printing. Desktop publishing refers to the process of using the computer to produce documents such as newsletters, brochures, books, and other publications that were once created manually using a variety of non-computer techniques along with large complex phototypesetting machines. Today desktop publishing software does it all - almost. But before PageMaker and other desktop publishing software there were e-scales, paste-up, and other non-desktop computer ways of putting together a design for printing.
Properly speaking, desktop publishing is the technical assembly of digital files in the proper format for printing. In practical use, much of the “graphic design” process is also accomplished using desktop publishing and graphics software and is sometimes included in the definition of desktop publishing. Comparison between desktop publishing and graphic design:
What is Desktop Publishing - It is the process of using the computer and specific types of software to combine text and graphics to produce documents such as newsletters, brochures, books, etc.
What is Graphic Design - It is the process and art of combining text and graphics and communicating an effective message in the design of logos, graphics, brochures, newsletters, posters, signs, and any other type of visual communication.
Desktop publishing software is a tool for graphic designers and non-designers to create visual communications.
Advantages of Desktop Publishing:
Desktop publishing included the use of a computer for creating document that combine word processing with graphics (images). You can create Newspaper, magazines, brochures, colorful flyer’s, visiting cards, marriage cards, and advertisements are example of desktop publishing.
The difference between word processors and desktop publishing is becoming blurred with the introduction of full-featured word processors that support advanced graphics and layout capabilities. In general, desktop publishing systems give you greater control over the layout of your document.
As with work in desktop publishing offers many advantages.
1. Do-it-yourself desktop publishing can save money.
2. In this you have all the control over your final product.
3. It is easy to make changes.
4. It gives you more ways to effectively communicate ideas.
Disadvantages of Desktop Publishing:

One of the biggest disadvantages of desktop publishing is upgrading software. Now a days in desktop publishing there are three types of software we are using it’s Photoshop, CorelDraw and Page Maker. But when we are talking about new software then In design is the latest software which overtake Page Maker and there are a lot of latest version in Photoshop like 7, 9, 10, 11, 13 etc. which is upgrading very quickly. And generally professional people use this latest version to create a latest and attractive graphics and advertisement.

Employment Facts for Desktop Publishers:
In the last year there were about 28000 people employed as desktop publishers. Most of the people worked in the printing and publishing industries. You can find desktop publishing jobs throughout the countries, generally in large metropolitan cities.
Educational Requirements for Desktop Publishers:
Actually you do not need a collage or any professional degree to get a desktop publishing job, but if you have these degrees or either certificates are afforded the best job opportunities in this field. Many people working in this field learn on the job, while others take classes or complete certificate programs at vocational schools, universities and colleges, or on the Internet.
Other Requirements for Desktop Publishers:
1. You must have basic computer skills.
2. A strong work moral.
3. The ability to pay attention to detail and work independently.
4. Good eyesight, including visual acuity.
5. Focus for your work.
Salary in this field:
As with many positions, salaries for Desktop Publishers vary according to geography and the type of employer. Following are some typical salary ranges:
Junior Desktop Operator: 7000:10000
Senior Desktop Operator
And after 2 or 3 years experience you can earn above 20000 easily.
Reference: www. Wikipedia.com
www.computersfuture.com
Kirubakaran, I MJMC, Feb 2012.

Design

Design
Design as a noun informally refers to a plan or convention for the construction of an object or a system (as in architectural blueprints, engineering drawing, business process, circuit diagrams and sewing patterns) while “to design” (verb) refers to making this plan. No generally-accepted definition of “design” exists, and the term has different connotations in different fields (see design disciplines below). However, one can also design by directly constructing an object (as in pottery, engineering, management, cowboy coding and graphic design).
More formally design has been defined as follows.
(noun) a specification of an object, manifested by an agent, intended to accomplish goals, in a particular environment, using a set of primitive components, satisfying a set of requirements, subject to constraints;
(verb, transitive) to create a design, in an environment (where the designer operates)
The person designing is called a designer, which is also a term used for people who work professionally in one of the various design areas, usually also specifying which area is being dealt with (such as a fashion designer, concept designer or web designer). A designer’s sequence of activities is called a design process. The scientific study of design is called design science.
Designing often necessitates considering the aesthetic, functional, economic and sociopolitical dimensions of both the design object and design process. It may involve considerable research, thought, modeling, interactive adjustment, and re-design. Meanwhile, diverse kinds of objects may be designed, including clothing, graphical user interfaces, skyscrapers, corporate identities, business processes and even methods of designing.
Design Disciplines
  • Applied arts
  • Architecture
  • Fashion Design
  • Game Design
  • Graphic Design
  • Industrial Design Engineering
  • Interaction Design
  • Interior Design
  • Product Design
  • Process Design
  • Engineering Design
  • Instructional Design
  • Web Design
  • Service design
Design Methods is a broad area that focuses on:
  • Exploring possibilities and constraints by focusing critical thinking skills to research and define problem spaces for existing products or services—or the creation of new categories; (see also Brainstorming)
  • Redefining the specifications of design solutions which can lead to better guidelines for traditional design activities (graphic, industrial, architectural, etc.);
  • Managing the process of exploring, defining, creating artifacts continually over time
  • Prototyping possible scenarios, or solutions that incrementally or significantly improve the inherited situation
  • Trends potting; understanding the trend process.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Submission by Semmalar Annam, I MJMC, December 2011
Design The Term Design
Design is to design the design of a design. a general concept,      an activity     a plan or intention     a finished outcome,  policy     a product
To design is to plan, to order, to relate and to control. To design is to devise courses of action aimed at changing existing situations into preferred ones
Design
from L. designare “mark out, devise,” from de- “out” + signare “to mark,”
from signum “a mark, sign.”de signo: about the sign
Originally in Eng. with the meaning now attached to designate
(1646, from L. designatus, pp. of designare);
Designer (adj.) in the fashion sense of “prestigious” is first recorded 1966;
designer drug is from 1983.
Dictionary
Design Noun
  1. 1. a plan or drawing produced to show the look and function or workings of a building, garment, or other object before it is built or made : he has just unveiled his design for the new museum.the art or action of conceiving of and producing such a plan or drawing :good design can help the reader understand complicated information | the cloister is of late twelfth century design.an arrangement of lines or shapes created to form a pattern or decoration: pottery with a lovely blue and white design.
  2. 2. purpose, planning, or intention that exists or is thought to exist behind an action, fact, or material object : the appearance of design in the universe.verb [ trans. ]decide upon the look and functioning of (a building, garment, or other object), typically by making a detailed drawing of it : a number of architectural students were designing a factory | [as adj. with submodifier ] ( designed) specially designed buildings.
  3. 3. (often be designed) do or plan something) with a specific purpose or intention in mind : [ trans. ] the tax changes were designed to stimulateeconomic growth.thesaurus
Noun
  1. 1. a design for the offices plan, blueprint, drawing, sketch, outline, map, plot, diagram,
draft, representation, scheme, model.
  1. 2. tableware with a gold design pattern, motif, device; style, composition, makeup, layout, construction, shape, form.
  2. 3. his design of reaching the top intention, aim, purpose, plan, intent, objective, object, goal, end, target; hope, desire, wish, dream, aspiration, ambition.
Verb
  1. 1. the church was designed by Hicks plan, outline, map out, draft, draw.
2. they designed a new engine invent, originate, create, think up, come up with, devise, formulate, conceive; make, produce, develop, fashion; informal dream up.
3. this paper is designed to provoke discussion intend, aim; devise, contrive, purpose, plan; tailor, fashion, adapt, gear; mean, destine.

The Role Of The Designer
The designer always operated between the content of the message and the produced form.
“…the task of a designer is to develop forms of the prototypes for industrial production…”
[Bureau of European Designers Associations, Definition of Design 1981] The word industrial-design relates to an industrial production technology.
Definition
Design is a creative process which integrates the physical qualities of a product with aesthetic considerations. Design is both the result as end product and the process which creates the result. Design as process deals with uniting such factors as technology, marketing, sales, recycling and disposal to create the balance between the commercial, immaterial and aesthetic values of a  product.  Norwegian official design promotion activities National information campaign to promote design Education of deciders to understand the value of design .
Design Means end chain Education in design is a mean to design know what and know how which are the means to  a qualified design profession which is a mean to  well designed processes and products which are means to economical competitiveness which is a mean to job creation which is a mean to economic wealth which is a mean to quality of life
Design as Art
Shape
Colour
Texture
Trends
Meaning
Aesthetics
Styling
Decoration
Design as complex societal corporate activity
Shape Use Materials Price
Colour Purpose Processes Usability
Texture Ergonomics Technology Positioning
Trends Environment Durability Distribution
Meaning Life Style Reliability Competition
Aesthetics Interaction Engineering Strategic Design
Styling ` Ergonomics Economy Systems
Decoration Semiotics Sustainability Cultural Factors
Reference:  (E-book) Bureau of European Designers Associations,
Definition of Design 1981].

                                                                THE PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN
BALANCE

Balance is the concept of visual equilibrium, and relates to our physical sense of balance.
GRADATION
Gradation of size and direction produce linear perspective. Gradation of color from warm to cool and tone from dark to light produce aerial perspective. Gradation can add interest and movement to a shape. A gradation from dark to light will cause the eye to move along a shape.
REPETITION
Repetition with variation is interesting, without variation repetition can become monotonous.
They can no longer be absorbed properly with a single glance. The individual character of each square needs to be considered.
CONTRAST
Contrast is the juxtaposition of opposing elements eg. opposite colours on the colour wheel - red / green, blue / orange etc. Contrast in tone or value - light / dark. Contrast in direction - horizontal / vertical.
The major contrast in a painting should be located at the center of interest. Too much contrast scattered throughout a painting can destroy unity and make a work difficult to look at. Unless a feeling of chaos and confusion are what you are seeking, it is a good idea to carefully consider where to place your areas of maximum contrast.
HARMONY
Harmony in painting is the visually satisfying effect of combining similar, related elements. eg.adjacent colours on the colour wheel, similar shapes etc.
DOMINANCE
Dominance gives a painting interest, counteracting confusion and monotony. Dominance can be applied to one or more of the elements to give emphasis
UNITY
Relating the design elements to the idea being expressed in a painting reinforces the principal of unity.eg. a painting with an active aggressive subject would work better with a dominant oblique direction, course, rough texture, angular lines etc. whereas a quiet passive subject would benefit from horizontal lines, soft texture and less tonal contrast.
Unity in a painting also refers to the visual linking of various elements of the work.
Gayathri







Colours


Definition of Colour

The Concise Oxford Dictionary describes color as “sensation produced on eye by rays of light when resolved as by prism into different wavelengths; one, or any mixture, of the constituents into which light can be separated as in a spectrum or rainbow.” The Collins Gem Dictionary says, “Appearance of things as a result of reflecting light.”
The McGraw Hill Dictionary of scientific and technical terms describes color as, “general term that refers to the wavelength composition of light, with particular reference to its visual appearance.”
Merriam Webster Dictionary defines color as,
  • a phenomenon of light (as red, brown, pink or gray or visual perception that enables one to differentiate otherwise identical objects.
  • the aspect of objects and light sources that may be described in terms of hue, lightness and saturation for objects and hue, brightness and saturation for light sources.
  • a hue as contrasted with black, white or gray.
From these definitions it is clear that for a human eye as well as its brain and mind to perceive color, light is essential.
Sir Isaac Newton, the renowned English scientist, in the year 1622 AD, conducted an experiment in which he used a prism and directed light through it. The result was the appearance of seven colors, which he called a color spectrum.
Colour Classification

This color classification of Newton is relevant even today. The color spectrum he had arrived at is akin to the color spectrum of a rainbow. The light is radiant but a visible energy of electromagnetic wave motion, which moves through space at an incredible speed of 186,000 miles per second. Like X-rays, or, radio signals it is transmitted through electric vibrations and magnetic fields, though, of course, at different frequencies. It moves in waves and the measure for lights wavelength is Angstrom Units (AU).
Primary Colors: 
Red, Blue and Yellow are considered the primary colors because they are pure colors, which are beyond production by mixing other colors. Since we can arrive at any color by mixing these three colors in different proportions, these are rightly identified as primary colors.
Secondary Colors: 
If we mix two primary colors in equal parts, we get the secondary colors viz., violet, green and orange. (violet = blue + red, green = blue + yellow, orange = yellow + red).
Tertiary Colors: 
By mixing a primary color and a secondary color in equal proportion, we get tertiary colors.

Submitted by PRAKASH
















The Colour Spectrum
Discussions about colour (British spelling) always begin with a colour wheel (above) and a discussion of the Primary Colours. Depending on the application and environment Primary Colours fall into three families…
RGB (Red / Blue Green)
CMY (Cyan / Magenta / Yellow)
YRB (Yellow / Red / Blue)
RGB is used by most electronic and transmissive-light technologies such as TV and film, and CMY (actually CMYK including Black) is used with reflected light technologies such as printing inks. The primaries traditionally taught in art school for painters, and for this reason the ones we’ll be discussing here, areYRB (Yellow / Red / Blue). There’s no point in arguing over which primary system is best — they each have their place in a specific discipline.
First and Second Order Colours 
Any colour of the spectrum can be made by mixing the YellowRed, and Blue primaries. This is why they are called First-Order colours. These are pure colours and are not created though mixing any other colours. These 12 colours, starting at the top of the colour wheel with Blue and moving clockwise are; Blue-VioletVioletRed-VioletRedRed-OrangeOrange,Yellow-OrangeYellowYellow-GreenGreen and Blue-Green.
Do you see the pattern here? Work your way clockwise around the Colour Spectrum, starting  with Blue and compare the colours in the list below to their positions.
Blue                Primary
Blue-Violet                       
        75% / 25% mix of Blue and Red
Violet                     
50%/50% mix of Blue and Red  
Red-Violet                                
25% / 75% mix of Blue and Red
Red   
             Primary
Red-Orange                              
75% / 25% mix of Red and Yellow
Orange                   
50%/50% mix of Red and Yellow
Yellow-Orange                          
25% / 75% mix of Red and Yellow
Yellow            
Primary
Yellow-Green                            
75% / 25% mix of Yellow and Blue
Green           
          50%/50% mix Yellow and Blue
Blue-Green                                
25% / 75% mix of Yellow and Blue
Do you see how the Second-Order colours which are half way between the First-Order primaries,  Violet, Orange and Green, are comprised of 50% each of the First-Order primaries on either side of them, and the rest of the colours are 25%/75% or 25%/75% mixtures?
COLOR SATURATION 
Once someone dives into the science of photography they begin to hear a lot of words, such as saturation, that can sound quite confusing.  When used in the context of light, saturation doesn’t mean the same thing it normally does.
Most people are used to thinking of saturation as the result of absorbing liquid.  A paper towel can quickly get saturated with water or a cotton with ether and so on.  So when we normally think of something as being highly saturated we think of it as being very wet, or having absorbed a lot of something else.
In terms of color and light things work differently.
A beam of white light contains every color.  Therefore, in terms of light, every color combined equals white.  When an object appears to be white, it is because the object is reflecting every single color towards us.  When an object appears to be the color red is actually absorbing every color except for the red, which it reflects.  At the other extreme is an object that is black.  This is absorbing all of the colors in the white light and reflecting none.
The term saturation comes into play when measuring the amount of color being reflected.  If an object absorbs every color except blue, for instance, then that blue is considered to be highly saturated.  If,  however, the object absorbs some of the blue along with everything else, then the blue is less saturated.
When all of this is brought back to the context of photography it can be a little trickier; still, the same basic idea is applied.  A photo with very dull colors is considered to have low saturation.  Further, the more blacks and grays that appear in the photo, the less saturated it is.
Photographers who deal with film choose their film based partially on its level of saturation.  Some film will have a high saturation while others a low.  A photographer may choose to shoot a portrait with a low saturation so as to bring out the details in the subjects face.  A landscape photographer may want a heavily saturated film because it punches up the colors and the finer details that get lost aren’t as important.
With digital cameras there tends to be a standard of setting a low saturation as a default.  Most cameras will let you adjust that before you take the picture.  People are more likely to play with the saturation of their digital pictures after the shot has been taken though.  Doing so is easy with almost any photo editing software out there.
To get a better idea of what saturation levels actually do to a picture then open up your editing software and play with some of your shots.  If you have a picture that has very bland coloring then increase the saturation and you may be surprised at the result.  Have fun, but pay attention to what you’re doing.  That way you’ll better understand what you’re doing.
                    The Dimensions of Colour
THE ARTISTS’ COLOUR WHEEL
What scale should we use to place our colours within the circle of hue? The oldest hue scale still in general use is the traditional artists’ colour wheel, a symmetrical arrangement of three primaryo from each other, and opposite three secondary colours, violet, green and orange respectively. The term tertiary is sometimes used for six colours on the perimeter of the wheel between adjacent primary and secondary colours, and sometimes for neutralized colours mixed from all three primaries. Many artists know this wheel in the form presented by Johannes Itten: colours, yellow, red and blue, equally spaced at 120
The artists’ colour wheel has a fascinating pedigree. We’ve just seen that the step of representing hue in a continuous circle was first taken by Newton in his Optics of 1704. We also saw earlier that the origin of the system of red, yellow and blue primary colours is much older, dating back (alongside many other systems) to late Antiquity, but that the first visual representation showing secondary colours in relation to these is in a diagram in the Opticorum Libri Sex (1613) of Francois D’Aguilon (Figure 7.3) . D’Aguilon showed his “simple” colours white, yellow, red, blue, and black on a linear scale, and placed each of the three “composite” colours purple, green and gold (”aureus”) in relation to the relevant pair of simple colours.
After Newton invented the circular dimension of hue, it was only a small step to apply this dimension to the artist’s linear scale of “simple” and “composite” colours. This step seems to have been first taken in a diagram added to the 1708 edition of the Traite de la Peinture en Mignature, attributed to Claude Boutet (Figure 7.4). In this work the author took the additional step, thanks also to Newton’s influence, of removing white and black from the scale of simple colours, leaving just yellow, red and blue as the three primary colours (”Couleurs Primitives”). In a move followed in most succeeding colour circles for artists, the author abandoned the unequal spacing of Newton’s hue scale in favour of the equal spacing of the artist’s colour scale. In the twelve colour version of the colour wheel on the right-hand side of Figure 7.4, this resulted in the three primary colours, yellow, red and blue, being evenly spaced at 0o, 120o and 240o respectively, and each directly opposite one of the three secondary colours (purple, green and orange respectively). Notice that the clockwise sequence of colours follows the order of the artists’ colour scale (yellow-red-blue) rather than the sequence of the spectrum (red-yellow-blue), so that the order of the colours around the circle is reversed compared to Newton’s. The result is essentially identical to the colour wheel of Itten.
Boutet presented this circle alongside another one with seven colours which, unlike Newton’s, are evenly spaced, and include two reds and no “indigo”. This seven-hue circle shows the actual pigments from which the remaining colours were mixed (Lowengard, 2006: note that the “primary” red was actually mixed from scarlet and crimson!).

Figure 7.4 Hand-painted colour circles from the 1708 edition  of Traite de la Peinture in Mignature, attributed to Claude Boutet, including the oldest example of the symmetrical 12-hue artists colour wheel (right). Picture Credit: Kuehni (2003)
No doubt because of its appealing neatness and simplicity, the symmetrical twelve-hue system proved enduringly popular among artists, designers and teachers. In its original orientation, or rotated, it appears in numerous versions in the writings of later theorists and artists. Assisted partly by the inexplicable popularity of Itten’s books, it remains for many the colour wheel.
When Boutet wrapped the artists’ colour scale symmetrically around Newton’s circle, each of the primary hues suddenly and automatically found itself in a relationship of opposition to one of the secondaries. The difficulty is that, as we have seen, there are three fundamentally different kinds of opposing or complementary relationships among hues, and the hues that oppose each other are somewhat different in each case:
  • Psychological complements: hues that are opposite experiences e.g. unique yellow and unique blue, unique red and unique green.
  • Additive complements: hues of lights that mix to make white light e.g. “Monitor Yellow” and “Monitor Blue” (deep violet-blue), “Monitor Red” and “Monitor Cyan”, “Monitor Green” and “Monitor Magenta”..
  • Pigmentary complements: hues of artists pigments that mix to give black or grey, e.g. yellow and violet, scarlet and blue, crimson/”magenta” and green.
The complementary relationships embodied in the traditional artists’ colour wheel are in part psychological (e.g. red opposite green) and in part pigmentary (e.g. yellow opposite violet). The artists colour wheel, like the artist’s colour scale before it, embodies pigment mixing relationships, but with the subconscious assumption (in my opinion) that a place must be found for the four psychological primaries. Red and blue owe their status as traditional primaries to the fact that they are the psychological primaries closest to the ideal subtractive primaries magenta and cyan respectively. As we’ve just seen, red’s status as a primary colour was not even disturbed by the fact that Boutet had to mix it from scarlet and crimson paint. Green was forced into position opposite its psychological complement red, even though pigment mixing experience (as well as the evidence of afterimages) would place cyan opposite unique red. The artist’s colour wheel is a compromise, developed on the assumption that only a single colour wheel was needed, at a time when these different kinds of complementary relationships were not understood. Fatuous attempts to devise a single all-purpose “real colour wheel” persist down to our own time. In reality we need different hue circles to represent each set of relationships accurately (Figure 7.5). Which one we use depends on specifically what kind of question is being asked.
Elamparithi.M, I MJMC, December 2011.











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