Source: Anindita Sarkar, afaqs!, Mumbai, March 25, 2011
As the phase III of privatisation is expected to roll out soon, the Indian radio industry is expected to witness a major boost.
As the phase III of privatisation is expected to roll out soon, the Indian radio industry is optimistic of huge growth. The industry, which is currently about Rs 1,000 crore in revenue, will see 800 new radio stations, across 300 towns, during this phase.
While addressing the audience at the FICCI Frames 2011 Convention, held at the Renaissance Powai, in Mumbai Prashant Pandey, chairman, FICCI Radio Forum and CEO Radio Mirchi, said, “The year 2010 was a year of waiting for us. But, the phase III auction of radio is expected to add approximately 700 licenses across tier III and few tier II towns.”
Pandey was moderating the panel session, Coming Soon 800 New Radio Stations in 300 Towns: Opportunities and Hurdles. Gupta said that since the government will now allow licenses for radio stations to run for 15 years rather than 10 years, there are many investors who have now begun to show interest in this sector.
Krishnan noted that the penetration of radio in this country has seen a tremendous rise. Today, 80-90 per cent of mobile users exercise radio accessibility. And, this mobility of the radio has increased the usage of the medium. He also added that with time, the consumption of radio amongst women has also increased considerably.
“There are 250-300 million radio users today. This is more than that of newspaper penetration. Also, the consumption time of radio has moved ahead of television. It is 145-150 minutes per day as compared to the television, which is approximately Rs 140 minutes per day,” said Krishnan.
But, when it comes to monetisation of the medium, radio is yet to meet its dues. “The cost per thousand and cost per reach of radio is significantly better than television. The platform is very effective as a delivery system. But, advertisers are yet to completely recognise this potential,” said Katial.
However, there was an air of optimism across the panel. When recession hit the global economy and slowdown invaded India, it was only radio whose economics remained stable, while other media platforms such as television and print de-grew significantly.
“It was during the slowdown phase that everyone discovered the potential of radio. It was revealed as a very effective system, and today, it plays a very important role in the media plan of various advertising categories across the metros,” said Bhatia.
He added that now, to push that potential upward, there is a clear need for multiple frequencies in metros which will help increase the category’s advertising inventories.
Pitale noted that the roll out of the third phase for radio will bring localisation of advertising on this medium in a big way. Radio can become more expensive when compared to television, if one wants to buy it nationally, he noted.
It has become their ability to occupy the first slot in whatever they do
- Be it in politics or media.
Sun Network’s foray into FM radio is no exception either.
Tamil’s first private FM stations - Suryan FM - from Chennai, Coimbatore and Tirunelveli are way ahead to its competitors. Independent audience research conducted by internationally renowned agency A.C.Nielson puts Suryan FM much beyond competition.
The top slot is a result of a carefully planned thoroughly enjoyable, round-the-clock, wholesome entertainment-oriented package. The interactive element will encourage everyone to make their own broadcasting. There will be substantial localization of content to retain the regional flavour.
The Frequency Modulation broadcasting will be through state-of-art, high power transmitters to provide fine aural output. In order to maintain tonal fidelity and sound clarity, Suryan FM has bid good bye to playing tapes and compact discs. The entire programme will be digitized and broadcast from a sensitive computer server, eliminating sound impurities and disturbances totally.
The reach of Suryan FM stations is more than a 120 Km radius thereby providing high quality entertainment for most of the neighbouring districts. The Coimbatore station will cover four districts - Coimbatore, Nilgiris, Erode and Salem- in Tamil Nadu and three districts - Palakad & Waynad in Kerala. The reach of the Tirunelveli station will include Tirunelveli, Nagerkoil and Virudunagar in Tamil Nadu and Kollam districts of Kerala. Chennai will reach out to Kanchipuram and Thiruvallur, Vellore, Tiruvannamalai and Villupuram.
So tune in at 93.5 Mhz for Suryan FM stations - Chennai, Coimbatore, Tirunelveli, Madurai, Tuticorin, Pondicherry & Tiruchy, 93.5 Mhz for RED FM station - Vishakapatinam, Bangalore, Hyderabad, Jaipur, Bhubaneshwar, Tirupati, Lucknow, Bhopal, Kozhikode, Indore, Vijayawada, Varanasi, Rajahmundry, Kanpur, Thiruvananthapuram, Thrissur, Mangalore, Kannur, Allahabad, Jabalpur, Mysore, Guwahati, Jamshedpur, Nasik, Vadodara, Rajkot, Aurangabad, Ahmedabad, Warangal, Nagpur, Kochi, Gulbarga, Asansol, Shillong, Pune , Siliguri & Gangtok .
Submitted by Ashwathy.A, I MA Communication, PSG CAS.
It seems all is not well with public broadcaster Prasar bharathi,established on november 23rd,1997, following a crunch in funds faced by the organiation over the past few months.
The All India Radio stations and the Doordarshan kendras across the country have started feeling the heat of delayed transfer of funds.
The heads of 230 AIR stations including 13 in Tamil Nadu and Puducherry have received a communication from a top official from New Delhi demanding the total fixed assets of all the stations.
According to sources AIR has a fixed asset of Rs.1,20,000 crore.
In the recent past,acccording to sources,Prasar Bharathi is finding it difficult even to pay the casual staff who are working on a contract basis in AIR and Doordarshan Kendras during the particular month.There are stations where payment is delayed even for 3 to 4 months.The worst affected are the women part-time staff who are solely depandent on it.
Another disheartning fact is that there has been neither recruitment nor promotion for the past 20years. AIR and DDK s stations across the country hire casual staff to run the show.
Many AIR stations are headless without station directors.Instead many of the stations are headed by programme executives. And there are only a handful of announcers on roll. The Union Minister for Information and Broadcasting knowing fully well the poor state of affairs failed to show any interest in giving in a new lease of life to the sagging Prasar Bharathi. The situation is worsened after private players making an entry into broadcasting medium.
A day is not far off when the public broadcaster would land in the hands of top private corporate.One has to wait and watch the development.
By Dr. Mrinal Chatterjee
(The writer is Professor, Indian Institute of Mass Communication (IIMC), Sanchar
Marg, Dhenkanal 759 001, Orissa.).
What are Radio Documentary/ Feature / Magazine?
This article was downloaded from SRM University Media Studies Professor Nirmaldasan’s web.
A radio documentary is a documentary programme devoted to covering a particular
topic in some depth, usually with a mixture of commentary and sound pictures.
Some radio features, especially those including specially composed music or
other pieces of audio art, resemble radio drama in many ways, though
non-fictional in subject matter, while others consist principally of more
straightforward, journalistic-type reporting but at much greater length than
found in an ordinary news report. 
Radio Feature often is used as a synonym
of radio documentary. However, there is a slight difference. Though radio
feature resembles a documentary in the way it is made, but differs in its larger
scope and subject/time variability. Radio magazine is an umbrella programme on a
particular subject, which can have several programmes in it- documentary,
features, interviews, music etc. There has to be a synergy in the content of the
Here is what Helmut Kopetzky, a German author answered to this question:
“Staring red-eyed at the mirror in front of me, having spent another day and
half of the night with my computer, I ask myself fundamental questions: Why
radio? Why documentary? Answer: No other medium can provide me with more freedom
of creation and investigation. It meets my urgent interest in reality and the
desire for a ‘musical’ expression. The material (der Werkstoff) is sound. And
sound always surrounds us. And: I’m not so much interested in the description of
stable situations, but in processes. Our medium is not space, but time; our
stories are not glued to the ground, but have motion, life … That’s why!”
Radio Documentary / feature provides the listeners an impression of reality-
that is midway between the experience of print, where the reader has to paint
the picture all by himself; and television, where reality is visually recreated
for his eyes- making him/her passive recipient of the reality. Radio documentary
provides the audience the slice of reality through real sound-bites, dialogue,
ambient sound and stops short of making the audience a passive one. The audience
has to make an effort to recreate the scene in his mind. He has to paint the
full picture with templates provided by radio.
A question that is often asked: is there a demand for radio documentary? In an
age where entertainment especially music dominates the radio world over, is
there any space for documentaries? Answer: Yes. There is a demand, and the
demand is growing. When most of the entertainment-obsessed radio stations,
mostly in private domain belch the same kind of music, in the same format-
people look for something else. Something that provides them some food for
thought, fodder for mind. There is a space for good documentaries and features.
Radio in India
Sound broadcasting started in India in 1927 with the proliferation of private
radio clubs. The operations of All India Radio (AIR) began formally in 1936, as
a government organisation, with clear objectives to inform, educate and
entertain the masses.
When India attained Independence in 1947, AIR had a network of six stations and
a complement of 18 transmitters. The coverage was 2.5% of the area and just 11%
of the population. Rapid expansion of the network took place post Independence.
AIR today has a network of 232 broadcasting centres with 149 medium frequency
(MW), 54 high frequency (SW) and 171 FM transmitters. The coverage is 91.79% of
the area, serving 99.14% of the people in the largest democracy of the world.
AIR covers 24 Languages and 146 dialects in home services. In External services,
it covers 27 languages; 17 national and 10 foreign languages. On an average
AIR airs about 242 hours of programming every day. Documentaries and Features
comprise of major portion of the content of AIR.
First private commercial FM station (Radio City) went on air in Bangalore on
July 3, 2001. In less than a decade later, India now has over 100 commercial
FM stations. There are FM radio stations in almost all Tier 1 and 2 cities.
There are scores of Community and Campus Radio Stations. The number is
growing with easing of norms and restrictions.
Till date news is not allowed to be broadcast in private commercial radio. But
there has been consistent demand from industry and civil society for that, and
there are indications that the government will allow this in near future. If
that happens, then there will be more opportunity to air news-based or
news-centric documentaries and features.
New Technological Advances in Radio
There have been spectacular technological advances in Radio, both in production
and delivery platform. Digital technology has almost replaced analogue, leading
to ease of production and to convergence on a wider scale and platform. Radio
programme now could be aired across several media. It could be made interactive.
There could be multimedia content- with bits of audio, print and visuals strung
together. One has to be aware of the advances in order to take advantages of the
features for better reach, access and listening pleasure of the audience.
Radio could be broadcast through internet. One can listen to radio on PC and
net-enabled Mobile. The advantage of internet radio is the ease of use and
Visual Radio 
India happens to be the third country in the world to have introduced `Visual
Radio’. In 2006 it was first introduced by Radio Mirchi in Delhi.
In a normal radio station you can tune in to listen to the music. Whereas, when
you tune into the visual enabled radio station you can also interact with the
radio station while listening to the broadcasting songs. You will see a visual,
interactive channel with more information and opportunities to participate and
give feedback. You can see the information about the currently playing song,
such as the artist name, title of the song, biographies and pictures of the
artist. You can even download the ringtone of the currently playing song
While listening to a Visual Radio enabled FM channel, you can switch the
interactive Visual Radio service on or off whenever you want to. You can get
updates about upcoming albums and new artist etc and you can submit your
feedback and take part in Polls.
To connect to the visual radio you need: a. A Compatible mobile phone, b. A
proper access point to Visual Radio data; and c. A Visual Radio enabled station
where you are located.
How to produce good Radio Documentary?
Like in print and television, radio documentary/feature can be made on
practically any subject. From current events to history, from scientific
inventions to philosophy- you can make documentaries on practically any subject.
AIR, Cuttack once made a radio feature on `Silence’. Creativity is the key.
However, before taking up a subject take the `so what’ test. Think about the
relevance of the subject for the intended audience: how interested the audience
will be in this subject. Is it important? Is it interesting? Will it have some
impact on the audience or/and policy makers/ government/ administration? Will it
make the audience sit up and notice something that they have not cared to notice
till date? Will it amuse the audience? Will it entertain the audience? Make
documentary on something you care about - If you don’t care, why should anyone
There can be different approaches to make a radio documentary/feature: ramrod
straight- journalistic type or like a meandering drama with the build up, climax
and resolution. It could be made with a dash of humour or with all seriousness.
It could be made with lot of sound effects or with minimal effects. The trick is
to see, if it helps in achieving the objective of the documentary. The approach
should depend on the objective, mood and tenor of the documentary.
Think about the execution. Think about the resources (financial, human resource,
logistical) you have or could get. Make a realistic and pragmatic plan of
Before you embark on any documentary, conduct considerable research about the
subject. You should have ample materials on the subject.
Write a working script before you start recording. You should be clear about
what you want to do. A written script gives a control over the subject.
Here are some tips to make good radio documentary.
Be creative. Think out of the box. Think of stories, which have not
been told so far. Think of a different angle to tell a story told hundreds of
times. Think. Is there a new way to approach an `old’ idea?
Tell engaging Stories. People like to hear good stories, well told.
Research. When developing a documentary, especially on social
awareness project, doing the proper research is mandatory. The information
dispersed by such a show must be accurate, reliable, and current. Research can
be accessed via the Internet, library, educational/research institute. Doing
research for the radio documentary may also involve finding people who have
something to contribute to the documentary, either by providing an interview, a
story, or any other bits of material that can give the show some added
Provide need-based information
Make your documentary intimate. Try to have direct access to the
people/events/storytellers- Real people, real accents. Second hand information
can dilute the subject matter, person or event.
Create near real scenes through audio pictures. Places, scenes and
imagery bring stories to life. A scene can as simple as a kitchen, a field or a
car. One of the greatest gifts of radio is its ability to provide audio pictures
of scenes, thus allowing the listener into that space. Record out and about.
What’s happening in the background can sometimes be as important as what’s being
said - i.e. chirping of birds, laughter in a room, a tractor/machine,
Involve the audience. Take feedback. Act on the feedback.
Listen to good documentaries made allover the world. A list of
websites has been given at the end of this article to help you in this regard.
Some Good Documentaries from around the world:
1. Ghetto Life 101 (Recorded in Chicago, Illionis, Premiered May 18, 1993 on
In March, 1993, LeAlan Jones, thirteen, and Lloyd Newman, fourteen, collaborated
with public radio producer David Isay to create the radio documentary Ghetto
Life 101, their audio diaries of life on Chicago’s South Side. The boys taped
for ten days, walking listeners through their daily lives: to school, to an
overpass to throw rocks at cars, to a bus ride that takes them out of the
ghetto, and to friends and family members in the community.
The candor in Jones and Newman’s diaries brought listeners face to face with a
portrait of poverty and danger and their effects on childhood in one of
Chicago’s worst housing projects. Like Vietnam War veterans in the bodies of
young boys, Jones and Newman described the bitter truth about the sounds of
machine guns at night and the effects of a thriving drug world on a community.
Ghetto Life 101 became one of the most acclaimed programs in public radio
history, winning almost all of the major awards in American broadcasting,
including: the Sigma Delta Chi Award, the Ohio State Award, the Livingston
Award, the Corporation for Public Broadcasting Awards for Excellence in
Documentary Radio and Special Achievement in Radio Programming, and others.
Ghetto Life 101 was also awarded the Prix Italia, Europe’s oldest and most
prestigious broadcasting award. It has been translated into a dozen languages
and has been broadcast worldwide.
2. Journey to the Ice Edge
A `contemporary classic’, it is a beautiful and provocative documentary by the
reclusive Danish producer Niels Peter Juel Larsen. This program won the 1985
Prix Futura in Berlin, and stirred considerable controversy when it was first
broadcast. Ice Edge is an unblinking account of a hunting expedition by
dog-sledge from a trading station, Niaqornat, to the ice edge at the mouth of
the Ummannaq fiord in Greenland.
3. BBC Radio 4 documentary: City Messengers
Documentary following the lives of two of London’s 400 cycle couriers, whose
working day is spent delivering packages across the city. The job is badly paid
and the risk of serious injury is relatively high, yet there is a thriving
sub-culture of people who have chosen the freedom of the road above the security
of the office. It was aired on September 2, 2008
It is a long running scholarly radio documentary show on CBC Radio One.
Premiering in 1965 under the title The Best Ideas You’ll Hear Tonight, it is
currently hosted by Paul Kennedy and is on between 9:05 and 10:00 each weekday
The show describes itself as a radio program on contemporary thought. The
subject matter of the shows varies, but music, philosophy, science, religion,
and especially history are common topics. The show has won many plaudits for its
quality and depth.
The series is notable for soliciting programming proposals from people who are
not professional broadcasters, and having the successful applicants write and
host their own documentaries (aided in production by CBC staff producers). Many
Ideas programs are multi-part, with two, three, four, or more fifty-five minute
programs devoted to a single topic. Transcripts and audio recordings of many
programs are made available, and sold directly by the CBC.
 Source: http://allindiaradio.org/about1.html
 For a list see http://www.asiawaves.net/india-fm-radio.htm
 Notable CBC staff producers who have been associated with the program
include Bernie Lucht, Geraldine Sherman, and David Cayley. Individual programs
are produced at CBC Radio One facilities across Canada. Documentarian William
Whitehead also wrote or cowrote a number of shows for Ideas.
A television version for CBC Newsworld, Ideas on TV, was short-lived. The book
Ideas: Brilliant Thinkers Speak Their Minds, edited by Bernie Lucht,
commemorated the series’ 40th anniversary.
The show broadcasts Canada’s annual Massey Lectures and Lafontaine-Baldwin
Lecture. Audio downloads of many episodes are available from the CBC website, as
well as via the CBC Ideas podcast, which was, by popular demand, one of the
first to be included in the network’s large podcasting initiative begun in 2005.
Many episodes are also available for sale on audio CD.
GYAN VANI - Breathing trouble
Despite the vast dominance of Internet and television, the radio
remains a popular medium connecting people across the world. In
spreading education to even the far-flung places, it continues to play a
Gyan Vani, an educational FM radio channel, offered by the
Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) is an excellent example.
It was launched in 2001 and operates in several fm stations located at
40 centers. Each Gyan Vani Station has a range of about 60 km and covers
an entire city including the adjoining rural areas.
The medium of broadcast is English, Hindi or language of the region. The network
particularly caters to the disadvantaged sections of the society
exclusively to education and community development.
The first Gyanvani station was inaugurated by the Minister for Human
Resource Development, Dr. Murli Manohar Joshi, and Government of India
on the 7th November, 2001 in the city of Allahabad.
The programme include information relevant to students of pre-primary, primary,
secondary and higher secondary, as well as enrichment programmes for
environmental awareness, women‚ empowerment, legal literacy,
professional education and science education.
In the recent past most of the stations spread across the 40 centers in
the country are functioning without either station managers or assistant
station managers. Majority of the stations are managed by casuals on an
Coimbatore is one among the cities under the care of a
casual programme staff. Station and assistant station managers are
recruited for gyan vani radio stations on a six-month contract which is
subject to renewal.This contract system is one of the main hitch leading
personnel not to opt for this job.
In select cities the stations are not full fledged as they have set up their studios in some colleges on arental basis.As a result the college administration takes sole control of gyan vani, which in turn results in airing programmes related to the
respective college. The staffs employed at such colleges had to get
their salaries from the college management.
The main objective with which gyan vani had been launched has been
beaten since it has been unsuccessful to reach the desired audience of
students due to its weak signals.
Unless IGNOU comes up with measures to bring the broadcast back to form, the notion of gyan vani would soon be extinct.
Rafiq Ahmed, THE New Indian Express,-WEDNESDAY, AUGUST26TH, 2009, COIMBATORE.
Fever claims No. 1 position in Mumbai; No.2 in Bengaluru and Delhi
Source: Sangeeta Tanwar | afaqs! | New Delhi, May 11, 2009
The Radio Audience Measurement (RAM) data for Week 17 for four cities is out. A new name, Fever FM has claimed the top slot in Mumbai overtaking Red FM. The Mumbai market had seen close competition amongst Red FM, Radio City and Big FM.
However, in other markets, the status quo remains, with Radio Mirchi leading in Delhi and Kolkata and Big FM in Bengaluru.
In Week 17, Fever FM has landed at the top spot with a market share of 16.9 per cent, a gain of 1.1 percentage point over the previous week. Last week, the radio station stood second with a market share of 15.8 per cent.
Red FM has been pushed to No. 2 with a market share of 15.8 per cent, a loss of 0.9 percentage point in comparison to the previous week. At No. 3 is Radio Mirchi, with a market share of 15 per cent.
Speaking to afaqs!, Neeraj Chaturvedi, national marketing and promotional head and station head (Mumbai and Delhi), Fever FM, says, “Fever was the last station to be launched in Mumbai. We have been performing well since October last year. Over the months, we have worked towards aligning our programming. We were also grappling with problems on the transmission front. We worked on it and impressed upon our listeners to be the player in Mumbai offering best clarity of sound. Our campaign, Sun Mumbai Sun, reinforced this communication.”
Chaturvedi points out that in August 2008, the radio station came out with a TVC with an aim to build saliency for the brand – the campaign conveyed that Fever was an out and out Hindi radio station. Structural changes in programming, coupled with innovations (communication messages) and their effective execution have all worked in Fever’s favour.
The shows that have worked well for Fever FM include MidMorning hosted by Anuraag Pandey and Rubaroo by RJ Karan Singh.
Big FM is at No.4 with a market share of 12 per cent, a loss of 1 percentage point over the previous week. In Week 17, Radio City has moved up a place and is at No.5, with a market share of 11.2 per cent and a gain of 0.7 percentage point.
AIR FM Gold is at sixth spot, with a market share of 10.3 per cent and a loss of 0.4 percentage point.
At No.7 is Radio One, with a market share of 6.5 per cent, gaining 0.2 percentage point over Week 16.
Amongst the other stations in Mumbai, AIR FM Rainbow has 4.6 per cent; Akashvani has 3 per cent; Vividh Bharati has 2.4 per cent and Meow has 2.3 per cent market share.
Radio Mirchi is at No.1 in Delhi, with a market share of 24.8 per cent, a gain of 0.1 percentage point over the previous week. The tug-of-war for the No.2 position continues between AIR FM and Fever FM.
In Week 17, Fever FM has bounced back to the No.2 position, with a market share of 17 per cent and a gain of 2.5 percentage points over Week 16. AIR FM has slipped a place to occupy the third spot, with a market share of 15.5 per cent, a loss of 0.2 percentage point over the previous week.
Radio City continues at No.4, with a market share of 10 per cent. This week, it has lost 0.8 percentage point. Red FM is at No 5, with a market share of 8.5 per cent, a gain of 0.1 percentage point over Week 16.
Big FM is at No 6, with a market share of 6 per cent and a loss of 0.6 percentage point.
Among the other stations in Delhi, Radio One has 5.9 per cent market share; Meow FM is at 3.9 per cent; Hit FM has 3.1 per cent; AIR FM Rainbow has 2.8 per cent; Vividh Bharati has 2.2 per cent and Akashvani has 0.3 per cent.
Big FM is at the top spot here, with 18.6 per cent share, but a loss of 1.8 percentage points over the previous week.
After winning the battle for top spot in Mumbai, Fever seems to be fighting hard for top honours in Bengaluru too. It has climbed up two positions to become the No.2 player, with a market share of 16.9 and a healthy gain of 4.7 percentage points.
Radio Mirchi has been pushed to No.3, with 16.6 per cent market share and a loss of 0.4 percentage points compared to the previous week.
In Week 17, AIR FM is the No 4 player, with a market share of 12.8 per cent, losing 0.2 percentage points over the previous week. Radio One continues at No.5, with a market share of 10.7 per cent, which is unchanged from last week.
Radio City continues to occupy the sixth position, commanding a market share of 9.9 per cent, a loss of 0.4 percentage points compared to Week 16.
S FM is at No.7, with a market share of 6.9 per cent, a loss of 1.5 percentage points this week.
In Week 17, amongst others, Vividh Bharati has 3.5 per cent market share; Radio Indigo has 1.9 per cent; Gyan Vani has 1.3 per cent and Akashvani has 0.8 per cent market share.
In Week 17, Radio Mirchi, Big FM and Friends FM continue to occupy first, second and third positions respectively.
With a share of 17.4 per cent, Radio Mirchi continues to be the No 1 in the city, though it has registered a loss of 1.7 percentage points. Big FM has a market share of 16.6 per cent, registering a gain of 1.6 percentage points over the previous week. Friends FM has a share of 13.6 per cent, with a loss of 0.1 percentage points over Week 16.
Amaar FM, with a share of 9.7 per cent, is at No.4. Red FM is at No 5, with a market share of 8.4 per cent.
With a market share of 8 per cent, Radio One occupies sixth spot. Dropping two positions from last week, Fever FM is at No.7, with a market share of 7.4 per cent.
Among the other stations in Kolkata are Meow FM (5.6 per cent); AIR FM Rainbow (4.2 per cent); AIR FM Gold (4 per cent); Akashvani (2.4 per cent); Power FM (1.6 per cent) and Vividh Bharati (1.1 per cent).
Radio was the first national electronic mass medium, and allowed millions of people throughout the country to listen simultaneously to the same message.
In countries where television is not widely available, radio is still a primary source of news and entertainment. It remains one of the most portable mediums available, as well as one of the most influential information and propaganda tools. The most notable characteristic of radio is its availability. In the 2000s, especially in developed countries, radio faces increased competition from computer- based interactive technologies.
An exact starting point in broadcast radio history is not easy. Radio was not invented by one person. Rather, a variety of inventors contributed to specific aspects of radio development. Edwin Howard Armstrong and de Forest to the regenerative circuit. Later Armstrong invented frequency modulation (FM), but its development was hampered by Radio Corporation of America (RCA).
Radio as a mass medium
Radio became a mass medium during the 1920s. This decade saw a rapid growth as change in the number of stations and the nature of programming. American telephone and Telegraph invented the broadcast network and had network broadcasting over 26 stations. Then they withdrew from the radio industry sold to RCA. RCA soon acquired all stock in the National Broadcasting Corporation (NBC) and began to build a dominant network. NBC soon had competition with Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS). Then radio networks used wire service material to beat newspapers in delivering messages. These news actions led to the growth of separate radio newsgathering organizations.
The Advent of Advertising
By 1929, advertising had been included. NBC made more than $1.5 million in advertising that year. The audience responded even to simple programs. So advertising became popular.
Radios Golden Age
During the 1930s, radio matured as a mass medium and it became an electronic bridge. The number of homes with receivers, the interest of advertisers, and type of programming expanded rapidly. Audience began to regard radio as a reliable source of news and information. The growth of radio listening reflected an increase in radio ownership and a hunger for news and entertainment. As radio matured as an advertising medium, companies bought time to sponsor particular shows rather than simply airing commercials.
Competition from TV
After 1945 the advent of TV caused a rapid decline on radio programmes. As radio stars also moved to television. But radio reshaped itself and survived, becoming the music box of a new generation.
New technology and the “music box”
The development of FM radio and the creation of the transistor, which made portability possible, combined to recast radio as the music box it had once been. FM had three major advantages (1) it had better sound quality than AM, (2) smaller communities that were bypassed by other media forms would have access to frequencies, and (3) with its wider wave band, FM could carry the new high-fidelity and stereo recordings that were enhancing the quality of recorded music. AM radio stations send long wavelength, low-frequency radio signals, and FM stations send shorter wavelength, high-frequency signals. FM stations dominate radio ratings today because of higher sound quality.
Today’s Market Structure
By the end of the 1960’s, as television became the favorite mass medium for national advertising, radio lost its mass appeal. In 2001 radio received just $18 billion in advertising revenues. Syndicated programming dominates radio, especially in non-drive-time periods. A disc jockey at a central location plays songs and supplies chatter to stations around the country through telephone lines and by satellites. Syndication has become particularly prevalent in the talk format. But this type of programming lacks local flavor and reduces diversity.
Audience demand in radio markets
Radio does not aim for the mass but for targeted audience. The attention of the audience is sold to advertisers, which connects the markets for consumers and advertising.
Consumer market – radio listeners demand music, news, and talk. A few stations continue to carry dramas and comedy, and some sports, but music makes up the bulk of programming.
Demand for music – music programming provides background for people’s daily lives and helps us to endure exercise and to transcend boring tasks. The connection between age and radio format can be seen in the number of stations within format types. These formats reflect consumer demand.
It is expressed by the potential advisor, not by the audience, because each radio station targets a defined group of people. Therefore, business often buys radio advertisements as a part of a total media package.
Talk radio as a format was developed in the 1960s. They had debates and would push people to further extremes. That boosted ratings. The popularity of talk radio has created a wide diversity of hosts.
Even with new technologies, radio continues to be significant because programming is inexpensive, can be transmitted across borders, and does not rely on expensive receiving equipments. In countries where print media are not widely distributed, portable radios are the only connection to factual information.
The first ongoing broadcast for people outside a country occurred in 1927 by Soviet Union. During the next years other countries created their own broadcasts.
Radio may change during the early 2000s as a result of important trends.
These will determine both how we receive radio and the nature of radio content.
INTERNET RADIO- between 1996 and 2001, radio programming delivered over the internet boomed. The number of stations programming over the internet increased from 56 stations to 5000.in 2001 the internet radio industry began to backtrack. In 2002 the industry took an stronger blow when the royalty fees must be paid to recording companies for broadcasting their music .as a result, a radio station that casts 20 songs an hour for 24 hours to 10000 listeners would pay $3,360 a day, plus $302 , which is 9%.
SATELLITE RADIO- Even newer than internet radio. Satellite service accommodates radio listening on long trips because signals are not lost as a car moves from one signal area to another. The development of digital radio and the installation of satellite receivers in cars will give satellite a big boost. Traditional broadcasters are concerned that the satellite radio will begin to compete with then at the local level. However if listeners substitute satellite radio for local broadcast, broadcast ratings will decline and advertising support will follow. It is difficult to believe that satellite will not have a long-run impact on broadcast radio.
SUBMITTED BY: K.K.KARTHIKA 07MND004
II MSc(FOOD & NUTRITION), IC, 2008
Radio broadcasting began in India in 1927, with two privately owned transmitters at Mumbai and Calcutta. These were nationalised in 1930 and operated under the name “Indian Broadcasting Service” until 1936, when it was renamed All India Radio (AIR). Although officially renamed again to Akashwani in 1957, it is still popularly known as All India Radio. All India Radio is a division of Prasar Bharati (Broadcasting Corporation of India), an autonomous corporation of the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India. It is the sister service of Prasar Bharati’s Doordarshan, the national television broadcaster.Indian women are effected by daily serials.Since the turn of the 20th century, radio frequencies in India have been aggressively opened up to broadcasters on the FM and AM bands, although such service has been mostly limited to the metropolitan areas. Cities such as Mumbai, Delhi, Kolkata, Chennai, Bangalore, and many others have many private FM channels to broadcast popular Hindi and English music, although they are still not allowed to broadcast news like Akashwani does. Recently World Space launched the country’s first satellite radio service.
Submitted by Vincent (Oct, 2007)
Radio is the wireless transmission of signals, by modulation of electromagnetic waves with frequencies below those of visible light. Electromagnetic radiation travels by means of oscillating electromagnetic fields that pass through the air and the vacuum of space. It does not require a medium of transport. Information is carried by systematically changing (modulating) some property of the radiated waves, such as their amplitude or their frequency. When radio waves pass an electrical conductor, the oscillating fields induce an alternating current in the conductor. This can be detected and transformed into sound or other signals that carry information.
The word ‘radio’ is used to describe this phenomenon, and radio transmissions are classed as radio frequency emissions.
In 1893, in St. Louis, Missouri, Tesla made devices for his experiments with electricity. Addressing the Franklin Institute in Philadelphia and the National Electric Light Association, he described and demonstrated in detail the principles of his wireless work. The descriptions contained all the elements that were later incorporated into radio systems before the development of the vacuum tube. He initially experimented with magnetic receivers, unlike the coherers (detecting devices consisting of tubes filled with iron filings which had been invented by Temistocle Calzecchi-Onesti at Fermo in Italy in 1884) used by Guglielmo Marconi and other early experimenters.
In 1894 Alexander Stepanovich Popov built his first radio receiver, which contained a coherer. Further refined as a lightning detector, it was presented to the Russian Physical and Chemical Society on May 7, 1895.
The first public demonstration of wireless telegraphy took place in the lecture theatre of the Oxford University Museum of Natural History on August 14, 1894, carried out by Professor Oliver Lodge and Alexander Muirhead. During the demonstration a radio signal was sent from the neighbouring Clarendon laboratory building, and received by apparatus in the lecture theatre.
In 1896, Marconi was awarded the British patent 12039, Improvements in transmitting electrical impulses and signals and in apparatus there-for, for radio. In 1897 he established the world’s first radio station on the Isle of Wight, England. Marconi opened the world’s first “wireless” factory in Hall Street, Chelmsford, England in 1898, employing around 50 people.
The next great invention was the vacuum tube detector, invented by Westinghouse engineers. On Christmas Eve, 1906, Reginald Fessenden used a synchronous rotary-spark transmitter for the first radio program broadcast, from Brant Rock, Massachusetts. Ships at sea heard a broadcast that included Fessenden playing O Holy Night on the violin and reading a passage from the Bible. The first radio news program was broadcast August 31, 1920 by station 8MK in Detroit, Michigan. The first college radio station, 2ADD, renamed WRUC in 1940, began broadcasting October 14, 1920 from Union College, Schenectady, New York. At 9 pm on August 27, 1920, Sociedad Radio Argentina aired a live performance of Richard Wagner’s Parsifal opera from the Coliseo Theater in downtown Buenos Aires, only about twenty homes in the city had a receiver to tune in. The first regular entertainment broadcasts commenced in 1922 from the Marconi Research Centre at Writtle, near Chelmsford, England.
One of the first developments in the early 20th century (1900-1959) was that aircraft used commercial AM radio stations for navigation. This continued until the early 1960s when VOR systems finally became widespread (though AM stations are still marked on U.S. aviation charts). In the early 1930s, single sideband and frequency modulation were invented by amateur radio operators. By the end of the decade, they were established commercial modes. Radio was used to transmit pictures visible as television as early as the 1920s. Commercial television transmissions started in North America and Europe in the 1940s. In 1954, Regency introduced a pocket transistor radio, the TR-1, powered by a “standard 22.5 V Battery”.
In 1960, Sony introduced its first transistorized radio, small enough to fit in a vest pocket, and able to be powered by a small battery. It was durable, because there were no tubes to burn out. Over the next 20 years, transistors replaced tubes almost completely except for very high-power uses. By 1963 color television was being regularly transmitted commercially, and the first (radio) communication satellite, TELSTAR, was launched. In the late 1960s, the U.S. long-distance telephone network began to convert to a digital network, employing digital radios for many of its links. In the 1970s, LORAN became the premier radio navigation system. Soon, the U.S. Navy experimented with satellite navigation, culminating in the invention and launch of the GPS constellation in 1987. In the early 1990s, amateur radio experimenters began to use personal computers with audio cards to process radio signals. In 1994, the U.S. Army and DARPA launched an aggressive, successful project to construct a software radio that could become a different radio on the fly by changing software. Digital transmissions began to be applied to broadcasting in the late 1990s.
Uses of radio
Early uses were maritime, for sending telegraphic messages using Morse code between ships and land. The earliest users included the Japanese Navy scouting the Russian fleet during the Battle of Tsushima in 1905. One of the most memorable uses of marine telegraphy was during the sinking of the RMS Titanic in 1912, including communications between operators on the sinking ship and nearby vessels, and communications to shore stations listing the survivors. The first radio couldn’t transmit sound or speech and was called the “wireless telegraph”
Radio was used to pass on orders and communications between armies and navies on both sides in World War I; Germany used radio communications for diplomatic messages once its submarine cables were cut by the British. The United States passed on President Woodrow Wilson’s Fourteen Points to Germany via radio during the war. Broadcasting began from San Jose in 1909, and became feasible in the 1920s, with the widespread introduction of radio receivers, particularly in Europe and the United States. Besides broadcasting, point-to-point broadcasting, including telephone messages and relays of radio programs, became widespread in the 1920s and 1930s. Another use of radio in the pre-war years was the development of detecting and locating aircraft and ships by the use of radar (RAdio Detection And Ranging).
Today, radio takes many forms, including wireless networks and mobile communications of all types, as well as radio broadcasting. Before the advent of television, commercial radio broadcasts included not only news and music, but dramas, comedies, variety shows, and many other forms of entertainment. Radio was unique among methods of dramatic presentation in that it used only sound. For more, see radio programming.
Suresh (Oct, 2007)