शनिवार, 25 अगस्त 2012

New Media / WEB DESIGN HTML HTTP JAVA

What is HTML?
HTML is a language for describing web pages.
HTML stands for Hyper Text Markup Language
HTML is not a programming language, it is a markup language
A markup language is a set of markup tags
HTML uses markup tags to describe web pages
What is HTML? 
H-T-M-L are initials that stand for HyperText Markup Language (computer people love initials and acronyms — you’ll be talking acronyms ASAP). Let me break it down for you:
Hyper is the opposite of linear. It used to be that computer programs had to move in a linear fashion. This before this, this before this, and so on. HTML does not hold to that pattern and allows the person viewing the World Wide Web page to go anywhere, any time they want.
Text is what you will use. Real, honest to goodness English letters.
Mark up is what you will do. You will write in plain English and then mark up what you wrote. More to come on that in the next Primer.
Language because they needed something that started with “L” to finish HTML and Hypertext Markup Louie didn’t flow correctly. Because it’s a language, really — but the language is plain English.
HTML Tags
HTML markup tags are usually called HTML tags
HTML tags are keywords surrounded by angle brackets like <html>
HTML tags normally come in pairs like <b> and </b>
The first tag in a pair is the start tag, the second tag is the end tag
Start and end tags are also called opening tags and closing tags

HTML Documents = Web Pages
HTML documents describe web pages
HTML documents contain HTML tags and plain text
HTML documents are also called web pages
The purpose of a web browser (like Internet Explorer or Firefox) is to read HTML documents and display them as web pages. The browser does not display the HTML tags, but uses the tags to interpret the content of the page:
Introduction (HTTP)
1.1 Purpose
The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application-level protocol for distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information systems. HTTP has been in use by the World-Wide Web global information initiative since 1990. The first version of HTTP, referred to as HTTP/0.9, was a simple protocol for raw data transfer across the Internet. HTTP/1.0, as defined by RFC 1945 [6], improved the protocol by allowing messages to be in the format of MIME-like messages, containing metainformation about the data transferred and modifiers on the request/response semantics. However, HTTP/1.0 does not sufficiently take into consideration the effects of hierarchical proxies, caching, the need for persistent connections, or virtual hosts. In addition, the proliferation of incompletely-implemented applications calling themselves “HTTP/1.0″ has necessitated a protocol version change in order for two communicating applications to determine each other’s true capabilities.
This specification defines the protocol referred to as “HTTP/1.1″. This protocol includes more stringent requirements than HTTP/1.0 in order to ensure reliable implementation of its features.
Practical information systems require more functionality than simple retrieval, including search, front-end update, and annotation. HTTP allows an open-ended set of methods and headers that indicate the purpose of a request [47]. It builds on the discipline of reference provided by the Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) [3], as a location (URL) [4] or name (URN) [20], for indicating the resource to which a
method is to be applied. Messages are passed in a format similar to that used by Internet mail [9] as defined by the Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) [7].
HTTP is also used as a generic protocol for communication between user agents and proxies/gateways to other Internet systems, including those supported by the SMTP [16], NNTP [13], FTP [18], Gopher [2], and WAIS [10] protocols. In this way, HTTP allows basic hypermedia access to resources available from diverse applications.
1.2 Requirements
The key words “MUST”, “MUST NOT”, “REQUIRED”, “SHALL”, “SHALL NOT”, “SHOULD”, “SHOULD NOT”, “RECOMMENDED”, “MAY”, and “OPTIONAL” in this document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [34].
An implementation is not compliant if it fails to satisfy one or more of the MUST or REQUIRED level requirements for the protocols it implements. An implementation that satisfies all the MUST or REQUIRED level and all the SHOULD level requirements for its protocols is said to be “unconditionally compliant”; one that satisfies all the MUST level requirements but not all the SHOULD level requirements for its protocols is said to be “conditionally compliant.”
Java
Java is an object-oriented programming language with a built-in application programming interface (API) that can handle graphics and user interfaces and that can be used to create applications or applets. Because of its rich set of API’s, similar to Macintosh and Windows, and its platform independence, Java can also be thought of as a platform in itself. Java also has standard libraries for doing mathematics.
Much of the syntax of Java is the same as C and C++. One major difference is that Java does not have pointers. However, the biggest difference is that you must write object oriented code in Java. Procedural pieces of code can only be embedded in objects. In the following we assume that the reader has some familiarity with a programming language. In particular, some familiarity with the syntax of C/C++ is useful.
In Java we distinguish between applications, which are programs that perform the same functions as those written in other programming languages, and applets, which are programs that can be embedded in a Web page and accessed over the Internet. Our initial focus will be on writing applications. When a program is compiled, a byte code is produced that can be read and executed by any platform that can run Java.
Submitted by Naneetha.R, II MA Communication, April, 2012.

WEBSITE/CONSTRUCTION/STATIC/DYNAMIC

Steps followed in Web Designing
There are two types of websites, Static and Dynamic.
What is a Static Website?
A static web page (also referred as flat page) is a web page that is delivered to the user exactly as stored. Consequently a static web page displays the same information for all users, from all contexts, subject to modern capabilities of a web server to negotiate content-type or language of the document where such versions are available and the server is configured to do so.
What is a Dynamic Website?
Dynamic web pages are web sites that are generated at the time of access by a user or change as a result of interaction with the user. Dynamic web pages are a fundamental part of Web 2.0 which facilitates information sharing across multiple websites.

The following steps are followed in designing a website (Static or Dynamic)

Step 1: The website requirements are learnt from the Customer (or Client) and a speculation
             is created with the data in regard to color, design, and type of website.
Step 2: The website structure is designed based on the requirements and the initial
              speculations by the web designer.
Step 3: Site plan is designed URL architecture with web content and web copy for initial
              website launch.
Step 4: Once the content is ready. The next step is writing Tags such as Title Tag, Description
              Tag and keywords for the website launch.
Step 5: Other contents necessary for the website like videos, image, animation, map etc are
             compiled based on the context of the website.
Step 6: Once all the contents are ready for the initial website launch, Home page & inner
              page browser size Check is done for the website.
Step 7: IP address and IP location of the website’s domain is checked to ensure the IP
              address doesn’t have any harmful websites.
Step 8: After all the above mentioned process, the website is launched in its domain by
             logging into the backend of the website (This backend is where all the changes are
             committed to the website).
Step 9: Content is posted as different topics from designed sitemap with corresponding
             images and videos.
Step 10: In the content, different headings are optimised according to their order of
             appearance. Images and videos are also inserted accordingly and optimised.
Therefore, the above mentioned process is followed in launching a website.


WEB DESIGN/BASICS

                    WEBSITE DESIGNING- BASICS
Elements of Good Design
Fonts and Typography
How to Use Color
Graphics and Images
Web Layout Basics
Tackling Web Navigation
Accessibility and Usability
Web Design Software
Elements of Good Design
Good Web design is the same as good design. If you understand the elements that make up good design, you’ll have a Web page that works well. These elements of good design apply whether you are writing a Web page, a business card, or a t-shirt and once you understand them you’ll have the skills to be a great designer.
Elements of Design
Principles of Design
Web Design Glossary
10 Tips to a Great Web Page
The Web is Not Print
How to Drive Away Your Readers
More Web Design Basics
Fonts and Typography
Fonts are the way your text looks on a Web page. And most Web pages have large amounts of text. When you’re thinking of design, you need to think about how the text looks on a micro-level (the font glyphs, what font family, etc.) as well as the macro-level (positioning blocks of text and adjusting the size and shape of the text). These resources explain how to work with fonts on Web pages.
What is a Font?
Web Typography
What Font Size Should I Use?
Font Weight
Continue Learning About Fonts
How to Use Color
Color is everywhere. It’s how we dress up our world and how we see things. Color has meaning beyond just “red” or “blue” and color is an important design element. These color resources teach how to use color effectively in Web design.
Colorizing the Web
Color Symbolism
Color Wheel and Color Theory
Color Harmony
Creating a Web Color Scheme
Web Color Synchronization
Color Charts
Is the Browser Safe Color Palette Really Required?
Color Glossary
Additional Color Resources
Graphics and Images
Graphics are the fun part of most Web pages. As the saying goes “a picture is worth 1,000 words” and that’s also true in Web design. Learn how to get the most out of your Web images with the following links.
How to Add Images
Taking Great Photos for Web Sites
When to Use JPG or GIF Formats
Make Your Images Small
How to Protect Your Digital Images
Graphics Glossary
How to Build an Image Map
How to Choose Graphics Software
More Help with Graphics and Images
Web Layout Basics
When people think of Web design often what they mean is the layout. Layout is the organization of elements on a Web page. First you need to start with basic design principles. Once you understand them, you can move through how to place elements on your Web page. These links and resources will take you through the steps to learn good Web layout design.
How to Decide Where Your Elements Should go in the Layout
Once You’ve Decided the Placement, Learn the Basics of How to Lay Out Web Pages
Definition of White Space
What’s the Difference Between Padding and Margins?
Fixed Width Layouts Versus Liquid Layouts
Use Real Text for Testing Page Layouts
Web Design Gallery - Layout Ideas
Layout Glossary
More About Web Layout
Tackling Web Navigation
Navigation is how your customers get around from one page to another on a Web site. Navigation provides movement and gives your customers the chance to find other elements of your site. You need to make sure that the structure of your Web site (the information architecture) makes sense so that your customers aren’t forced to simply use search.
Designing Effective Web Navigation
Navigating Web Sites
Organization will Help Your Navigation
Link Rot: Are You a Culprit?
Web Pages Should Go Away
Adding Search to Your Web Site
What is Information Architecture?
Additional Web Navigation Resources
Accessibility and Usability
Accessibility and usability are often seen as a detriment to Web design, but a good designer focuses on making their site useful to as many people as possible. The links below take you through the basics of making an accessible site without compromising the design.
What is Accessibility?
What is Usability?
What do the Accessibility Guidelines Mean to Me?
How to Write Accessible Web Pages
Creating Color Blind Friendly Web Pages
Validating for Accessibility
Advanced Topics in Accessibility
Web Design Software
Most Web designers prefer to work in WYSIWYG or “What You See Is What You Get” editors because they provide a visual interface to the design. But finding the best Web design software is more than just WYSIWYG or not. Plus there are other tools you will need to build Web pages beyond just the Web editor.
Find the Right Web Design Software for You
Before You Buy a Web Design Editor
Myths and Facts About Modern WYSIWYG Editors
WYSIWYG Isn’t Really
The Best WYSIWYG Editors for Windows
The Best WYSIWYG Editors for Macintosh
The Best Web Design Suites for Windows
The Best Web Design Suites for Macintosh
Dreamweaver Resources
Other Web Design Software Need
EXAMPLE:
Where To Start With Your Website?
Where do you start with the creation of your (first) website. In this tutorial I want to give you some pointers to help you get started in the right direction.
What Kind Of Website?
When you want to start a website you will need to understand the different kinds of websites: static websites versus database-driven websites (like WordPress, etc.).
Intro To Creating Web Pages With HTML
Web pages are created with a simple markup language. This tutorial is an introduction to the markup language: HTML.
Building A Simple Website
This tutorial is a practical way to learn the basics of Web Design. You start straight away with the creation of a simple website and learn to use an HTML editor.
CSS Box Model
Understanding the CSS box model is essential when you start styling web pages. Every element on a web page is treated by a browser as a 3D box.
Hyperlinks
Hyperlinks are the bread and butter of web pages. With hyperlinks you can create a navigation menu, make it easy for visitors to jump to another section or link to an external source. This tutorial explains the use and creation of hyperlinks.
CSS Positioning Of Elements
The layout of web pages is fundamentally different from print layout. This tutorial explains the basic principles of positioning elements on a web page with CSS.
Layouts Made Easy With Grid Systems
One of the more difficult aspects of Web Design concerns the layout of web pages. Different approaches have been tried and discarded. In this tutorial I want to introduce you to Grid Systems; they make layouts easier and have few disadvantages.
Design Principles – Unity
Tutorial about how you can use repetition (in shape, color, font, etc.) and proximity to achieve Unity in a web design.
Free High Quality PSD Templates
A selection of High Quality Photoshop templates that can be downloaded for free.
Design Principles – Emphasis
Tutorial about the design principle Emphasis. Examples are given about the use of Contrast, Placement and Movement to emphasize an element on a web page.
Design Principles – Balance
Drawing the attention of visitors to information on the website is crucial for its effectiveness. In this tutorial you will learn about an important principle of (web) design, balance.
Submitted by Sathya.A, II MA Communication, April, 2012.

WEB DESIGN/THINGS TO KEEP IN MIND

THINGS TO KEEP IN MIND WHILE DESIGNING WEBSITE  
There are certain basic ingredients of a good website that people generally tend to miss as they fail to analyse the facts governing the significance of those features. Let us that a step-by-step walk through of all the basic needs of a good website.

COLOR COMBINATIONS OF WEBPAGE

 Color used to define a webpage is of prime importance from a web designer’s perspective. The colors used to define your website provide a pictorial storyboard to your webpage. Say, if you want to design a website that preaches about yoga and meditation you would rather go for a soothing and calm color such as a sky blue or a lighter shade of olive green as the website is intended to invite the visitors seeking peace and relaxation.
On the other hand, if you’re designing a website that is hosting a rock band then you may go for vivid grayscale colors and even somewhat intermediate to dark shades of red, blue and green.
Always make sure that the color combinations of the foreground and the background don’t contrast each other way too much to pinch the optic nerves of the visitor. At the same time, try to ensure that the foreground color doesn’t get merged with the background color due to lack of contrast.
FONT STYLE, COLOR AND SIZES


If you’re a blogger, then this point needs to be of prime consideration for you. In any website that hosts a lot of written content such as blogs, fonts play a vital role in deciding the quality and looks of the page. Again, the same old adage of the customer-salesman comes into play.
Try to decide your font according to your intended audience. If you are designing a website that tends to invite old aged people, say a religion or a charity website, then keep the font size somewhere between 25 to 40 points, so that it is clearly visible to everyone coming up to the site.
On the other hand, if the website is intended for the young generation, say a dating and social networking website, then a font size ranging between 12-18 points might play the trick.
Don’t forget to check the match of color of fonts with your website template. If you do, you loose the score. Always try to keep your visitor at the greatest level of sophistication. Try to use a font style that is both inviting and interesting. For example, if you are hosting a typographical art based website, the you can go for something ranging between bold fonts such as Helvetica (Typographers’ favorite) to cursive fonts such as Commercial Script. Try to keep the font of the page content text as simple and easily readable as possible.


PAGE HEADER AND FOOTER

Header is the topmost part of the website’s template and is kept constant throughout the website. It generally includes the name and description of your webpage mostly followed by a website menu bar. It represents the brand mark of the organization. If you are some company, then it must possess your logo.
Always remember- “The first impression is the last impression.” Header is the first and the foremost thing one notices as he/she lands upon the website. An attractive header with an impressive brand mark means half the job of fishing your visitor into the net is done. So, try to design the header with utmost clarity of thought and at the same time try to impart elegance and catchiness to it. If feasible, go for a designer or a freelancer to do the favors.
Footer must contain a sitemap with distinctive links or tags to the pages of chief importance. Many successful websites such as Digg, Speckyboy Design Magazine etc. use this style to impart interactivity. Also put up your copyrighting and privacy statements or links in the footer of the website template.
CONTENT SPAN ACROSS THE PAGE

This is a point equally generalised for all website templates. The content of the page should be organized in such a way that the visitor is comfortable reading it. the content must not span across the entire browser window as:
1.      It gives an ugly look to the webpage.
2.     It is difficult to focus on the complete computer screen at the same time.
3.     It is difficult to keep track of the line you’re reading to follow up.
At the same time, make sure that the content span is not to narrow to loose the user’s attention. If the content span is made equal to the sidebar spans, then the focus of the user (visitor) might frequently shift away from your content. In case you’re comparing multiple things, then the use of equally sized spans is very mush recommended as it allows the user to simultaneously shift his looks and compare the content of the two columns.
As most of the web users in the current scenario use a screen resolution ranging between 1024 x 768 and 1280 x 1024, a content span of 700 pixels and a sidebar span of 200 pixels including the paddings and margins (900 pixels overall) would serve to be the best solution.
Always remember the three Cs for designing a website-
1.      Creativity- How beautifully can you showcase your brand to your audience?
2.     Cautiousness- How much do you know the kind and nature of your audience?
3.     Clarity- How clearly can you define your objectives to your audience?
When it comes to web designing, the best way to learn and demonstrate is by experimentation. Never try to stick with the conventions. As a bit of an advice, try to innovate because in the field of web designing, it is never the bureaucrat who is a successful presenter.




SHILPA - K
10MMC015


WEBSITE/MAINTENANCE

Maintenance of a website once it is launched
Once a website is successfully launched with the initial sitemap architecture and plan, the website must be kept at check and maintained regularly to ensure the website is healthy and not affected internally and externally.
Take a look at the following steps followed in a website’s maintenance:
1) Once the website is launched with the proposed plan, the website’s URL and all the pages are submitted to Google.
2) URL and all the pages are submitted to Google using FTP (File Transfer Protocol).
3) Once the website is launched, it is enrolled to free Google software called Google WebMasters tool to keep the website’s health at check.
4) Any number for websites can be enrolled to Google’s Web Masters tool.
5) This tool examines the website and reports with errors like duplicate content or tags.
6) Using this information error can be corrected and the URLs of the website can be re-submitted to Google using FTP.
7) Google not only reports duplicates, but other errors like excess keywords usage (which restricts the website’s Google ranking)
8) The website’s health is periodically examined with the help of Google WebMasters tool, which reports all that the website undergoes.
9) As Google is the largest of all the Search Engines, a website is designed and optimised in a way it gets Google’s high priority and high PR (Page Rank).
10) After the successful completion of the above mentioned process, the website is optimised to gain high PR with a process called Search Engine Optimisation (SEO).
Hence, the above mentioned process is sequentially followed to maintain a website and ensure its health and effectiveness.
Submitted by Preethi.S, II MA Communication, April, 2012.

WEB DESIGN/ILLUSTRATIONS/CARTOONS


1. Illustrations and Cartoons:Illustrations and cartoon drawings can really bring a web design to life. Drawing is a creative activity by definition and by incorporating it into a website’s design is one of the most creative methods of presenting information on the web.The variety of this style is only limited by the designers imagination and can be hand-drawn or vector based imagery. Check out the examples below.
2. Two Tone Colour: Using only two colours to create a design doesn’t sound like a particularly inspiring style of design until you see it used well. When used well it can indeed be very inspiring and allows more focus on other aspects of the design such as typography and layout. More focus can be placed on the content as this style of web design ties in well with the minimalistic design which increases the users’ focus on the content.To see just how inspiring and less distracting this type of design can be take a look at the following examples of some of the best uses to two-tone colours in web design.
3. Photo-Realism : Photo-realism is a technique that everyone will be familiar with immediately purely because of the associated realism. It is a great way to complement the content especially when used as a large background image.The following examples show just how stunning photo realistic based web designs can be.
4. Transparency : Transparency is a great way of making text more readable when placed above images. Doing so also preserves the part of the image below the text so that the full image can still be seen to some degree.With the increasing demise of IE6 and ways of making transparent PNG files behave in IE6, transparency has become a viable style in web design. So much so that some sites rely on it heavily.
5. Beautiful Typography : Ultimately good typography is what helps make text more readable on the web but he design of typography can be inspiring in its own right. Great typography is an art and therefore is one of the more creative ways to display content online.Arranging native type on a website is slowly improving with services such as Typekit popping up but of course, image replacement techniques can be used for any unsupported fonts.
6. Textures and Patterns : Using textures and patterns can be a good way of adding depth to a web design. The most common use of this style is on the background either as a repeated image or a big background image.

7. Grunge : The grunge look can often look a little messy and untidy but that is part of the appeal. Especially in web design, as current trends point more towards the clean and tidy styles that is more appealing but grunge design still has its place primarily with brands which it is appropriate for.
8. NatureNatural elements within a web design create a familiar relationship with the outdoors and evokes the feeling of being down-to-earth. Nature can also give a design an organic feel. Have a look at the examples below to see how nature can be used effectively in web design.
9. Abstract : Abstraction is a very creative artform due to the freedom it gives the designer. Abstract art can be given a meaning or have no meaning at all or it can be interpreted in any way the viewer wishes or it can simply be used as a good looking visual effect. As such, this style is probably the most diverse in its creativity meaning that designs can be unique to themselves and be more memorable as a result.The freedom of abstract design is used to stunning effect on the web.
10. Retro : Retro design is a niche style that is a fairly recent trend in web design. It is commonly used to sell a product or service with styles that originate from anywhere from the 1920s to the 1970s. It is interesting to see modern interpretations of what was common in that era and below are some examples being used on the web currently.

Mostly from http://inspectelement.com/articles/10-fantastic-and-creative-web-design-styles/


SEARCH ENGINES/HISTORY&OPTIMISATION

Search engine history : The concept of hypertext and a memory extension really came to life in July of 1945, when after enjoying the scientific camaraderie that was a side effect of WWII, Vannevar Bush’s As We May Think was published in The Atlantic Monthly.Gerard Salton (1960s - 1990s), who died on August 28th of 1995, was the father of modern search technology. His teams at Harvard and Cornell developed the SMART informational retrieval system. Salton’s Magic Automatic Retriever of Text included important concepts like the vector space model, Inverse Document Frequency (IDF), Term Frequency (TF), term discrimination values, and relevancy feedback mechanisms. Ted Nelson created Project Xanadu in 1960 and coined the term hypertext in 1963. His goal with Project Xanadu was to create a computer network with a simple user interface that solved many social problems like attribution. While an independent contractor at CERN from June to December 1980, Berners-Lee proposed a project based on the concept of hypertext, to facilitate sharing and updating information among researchers. With help from Robert Cailliau he built a prototype system named Enquire.After leaving CERN in 1980 to work at John Poole’s Image Computer Systems Ltd., he returned in 1984 as a fellow. In 1989, CERN was the largest Internet node in Europe, and Berners-Lee saw an opportunity to join hypertext with the Internet. In his words, “I just had to take the hypertext idea and connect it to the TCP and DNS ideas and — ta-da! — the World Wide Web”. He used similar ideas to those underlying the Enquire system to create the World Wide Web, for which he designed and built the first web browser and editor (called WorldWideWeb and developed on NeXTSTEP) and the first Web server called httpd (short for HyperText Transfer Protocol daemon).The first Web site built was at http://info.cern.ch/ and was first put online on August 6, 1991. It provided an explanation about what the World Wide Web was, how one could own a browser and how to set up a Web server. It was also the world’s first Web directory, since Berners-Lee maintained a list of other Web sites apart from his own.this can be described as initial stage of search engine and internet history


Search engine optimization (SEO) is the process of improving the visibility of a website or a web page in search engines’ search results. In general, the earlier and more frequently a site appears in the search results list, the more visitors it will receive from the search engine’s users. Optimizing a website may involve editing its content and HTML and associated coding to both increase its relevance to specific keywords and to remove barriers to the indexing activities of search engines. Promoting a site to increase the number of backlinks, or inbound links, is another SEO tactic.Because effective SEO may require changes to the HTML source code of a site and site content, SEO tactics may be incorporated into website development and design. The term “search engine friendly” may be used to describe website designs, menus, content management systems, images, videos, shopping carts, and other elements that have been optimized for the purpose of search engine exposure.


Popular search engines:

Google
Bing
Yahoo
Ask
Aol
Mywebsearch
Lycos
Dogpile
Webcrawler
Info
Infospace
Goodsearch
Search.com
Excite
altavista

Submitted by Rohit.A, II MA Communication, April, 2012.

SEARCH ENGINES/CHARACTERISTICS

Search Engine Characteristics
The most popular and widely used combination of features use the WWW as a data source for text documents in HTML format and build on the realization of an index. The interpretation of the input is mostly on the basis of a simple syntax, which for instance
“– “ can be excluded as a keyword. The world’s largest suppliers of the three search engines Google (81%), Yahoo Search (9%) and Microsoft’s Bing (5%) are working on this model.
Presentation of the results
The page where the search results are displayed to the user (sometimes referred to as search engine results page (SERP)) usually includes links to sponsors. While the latter will only be admitted for payment in the search index, all of the first search term relevant websites are listed.
User search behaviour
Search engines provide access to vast amounts of information. In this regard, it can be divided into three types of search requests.
Navigation oriented
The user searches for navigational queries for specific pages, which he already knows, or from whom he believes they exist. The information needs of the user are satisfied after finding the page. These searches make up about 45 percent of all inquiries in Germany.
Information
The user is looking at a variety of informational requests for information on a particular subject area. Upon receipt of the information, the search has ended. Another works with the remains of most used pages. These searches make up about 40 percent of all inquiries in Germany.
Transactional
The user is looking at transactional requests for Internet pages, which he intends to work. These are, for example, Internet shopping, chat, etc. These searches make up about 15 percent of all inquiries in Germany.
Problems for search engines
Search engines have to deal with various problems in the operation.
Ambiguity -
Queries are often imprecise. Conversely, the search engine should not be too stubborn on the entered term. It should also include synonyms, so that the Linux computer search finds pages that contain the word instead of computers computer.
Grammar -
Many possible matches are lost because the user searches for a particular grammatical form of a search term. Some search engines allow searching using wild cards,

M COMMERCE

Mobile Commerce, also known as M-Commerce or mCommerce, is the ability to conduct commerce using a mobile device, such as a mobile phone, a Personal Digital Assistant (PDA), a smartphone, or other emerging mobile equipment such as dashtop mobile devices. Mobile Commerce has been defined as follows:
“Mobile Commerce is any transaction, involving the transfer of ownership or rights to use goods and services, which is initiated and/or completed by using mobile access to computer-mediated networks with the help of an electronic device
What is M-Commerce and Where Is Its Future?

What is M-Commerce?
Mobile commerce (aka “m-commerce”) refers to consumers shopping via wireless handheld accessories such as cell phones and PDAs. An m-commerce site is a version of a company’s webpage that is designed to fit within the constraints of a cell phone or PDA. (For more information on what makes a site m-commerce friendly please see “Make Your Site iPhone Friendly.”) While some m-commerce sites are set up to drive sales, the majority of retailers utilize m-commerce primarily as an additional branding channel.
Where is M-Commerce Now?
An article* written in 2007 for Internet Retailer Magazine stated, “The presence of e-retailers with mobile sites is growing; but just like Internet adoption in the mid-‘90s, e-retailers today are taking baby steps toward initiating a mobile presence. At the moment the majority of m-commerce transactions are limited to mobile device add-ons like ringtones, games, wallpapers, and screensavers.” Recent studies conducted earlier this year prove that m-commerce is still fairly small today- with approximately 3.4% – 3.9% of American mobile users utilizing m-commerce.
What is interesting, however, is what these consumers are buying. While the number or consumers utilizing m-commerce platforms has not changed too drastically, the purchases have. Of those that have made purchases via their mobile phones 58% purchased digital content for their phones, 51% purchased consumer electronics, 37% purchased computers/laptops/related equipment, 36% purchased books, 31% purchased apparel, and 20% purchased jewelry. This illustrates that consumers who use their mobile phones to make purchases are now purchasing as if they were in a retail store.
This is a dramatic difference in purchasing patterns is likely a result of increased consumer confidence in the security of m-commerce. A recent poll found that approximately 71% of consumers believe it is “very safe” or “fairly safe” to make a purchase via mobile phone.
Where is M-Commerce Going?
M-commerce may not explode in the next few years, but it is likely to continue growing steadily as more advanced wireless handheld accessories become available, more applications are released to facilitate “anywhere shopping,” and retailers get on board with the technology. The biggest challenges we will see with m-commerce over the next few years will be a continuation of the struggles that retailers have faced thus far: user experience barriers, security concerns, and negative perceptions about the value of m-commerce investment.
M-Commerce Advice
Moving forward ecommerce companies should do two things: get educated about m-commerce, and leave room for m-commerce in their marketing plans. First of all, find out as much as you can about m-commerce now and stay briefed on the latest news as advancements are made so that when m-commerce starts to become vital to your business you are ready with strategy and insight. Secondly, begin developing a marketing strategy that will leverage your m-commerce website when it is time to invest in it.
Submitted by Naneetha Ravisundar, II MA Communication, March, 2012.

SEARCH ENGINES/TYPES

 Different types of search engines
When people mention the term “search engine”, it is often used generically to describe both crawler-based search engines and human-powered directories. In fact, these two types of search engines gather their listings in radically different ways and therefore are inherently different.
Crawler-based search engines, such as GoogleAllTheWeb and AltaVista, create their listings automatically by using a piece of software to “crawl” or “spider” the web and then index what it finds to build the search base. Web page changes can be dynamically caught by crawler-based search engines and will affect how these web pages get listed in the search results.
Crawler-based search engines are good when you have a specific search topic in mind and can be very efficient in finding relevant information in this situation. However, when the search topic is general, crawler-base search engines may return hundreds of thousands of irrelevant responses to simple search requests, including lengthy documents in which your keyword appears only once.
Human-powered directories, such as the Yahoo directoryOpen Directory and LookSmart, depend on human editors to create their listings. Typically, webmasters submit a short description to the directory for their websites, or editors write one for the sites they review, and these manually edited descriptions will form the search base. Therefore, changes made to individual web pages will have no effect on how these pages get listed in the search results.
Human-powered directories are good when you are interested in a general topic of search. In this situation, a directory can guide and help you narrow your search and get refined results. Therefore, search results found in a human-powered directory are usually more relevant to the search topic and more accurate. However, this is not an efficient way to find information when a specific search topic is in mind.
Table 1 summarizes the different types of the major search engines.
Search Engines
Types
Google
Crawler-based search engine
AllTheWeb
Crawler-based search engine
Teoma
Crawler-based search engine
Inktomi
Crawler-based search engine
AltaVista
Crawler-based search engine
LookSmart
Human-Powered Directory
Open Directory
Human-Powered Directory
Yahoo
Human-Powered Directory, also provide crawler-based search results powered byGoogle
MSN Search
Human-Powered Directory powered byLookSmart, also provide crawler-based search results powered by Inktomi
AOL Search
Provide crawler-based search results powered by Google
AskJeeves
Provide crawler-based search results powered by Teoma
HotBot
Provide crawler-based search results powered by AllTheWebGoogleInktomiand Teoma, “4-in-1” search engine
Lycos
Provide crawler-based search results powered by AllTheWeb
Netscape Search
Provide crawler-based search results powered by Google
Table 1: Different types of the major search engines
From the table above we can see that some search engines like Yahoo and MSN Search provide both crawler-based results and human-powered listings, therefore become hybrid search engines. A hybrid search engine will still favor one type of listings over another as its type of main results.
There is another type of search engines that is called meta-search engines.
Meta-search engines, such as DogpileMamma, and Metacrawler, transmit user-supplied keywords simultaneously to several individual search engines to actually carry out the search. Search results returned from all the search engines can be integrated, duplicates can be eliminated and additional features such as clustering by subjects within the search results can be implemented by meta-search engines.
Meta-search engines are good for saving time by searching only in one place and sparing the need to use and learn several separate search engines. “But since meta-search engines do not allow for input of many search variables, their best use is to find hits on obscure items or to see if something can be found using the Internet.”
Although we are very much used to Google or Yahoo most of the times, it really doesn’t mean they are the only ones out there in the entire search engine world. Its really interesting to know that there are nearly seven types of search engines in total. Keep hooked on as we go through the entire list.
First-Tier Search Engines: 
All the popular search engines we know of like Google, Yahoo and Bing etc fall in to this category as they take on the majority of search market share. These search engines as we know works by indexing or mapping the entire web in a way so that they can be easily accessed by its users. You should also know that majority of the users for these search engines are people living and US and Europe although its widely becoming popular on other parts of the world as well.
Second-Tier Search Engines: 
Search engines which are less known or less common among the people fall in to the category, I can say search engine like ask.com fall in to this category. Although ask.com is a very good search engine to use and works almost the same way as the search engines which belong to the first category they just cannot compete with the big players in the industry. Why not try ask.com for few days? you may well like it who knows! You should know that you don’t want to be spending much for optimizing your sites for these type of search engines as they don’t really convert well for the simple reason “They don’t have enough user base like big players”
Regional Search Engines: 
It should be really interesting for you to know the fact that Google is not really the most popular search engine across the globe, there are some exceptions. There are places where people prefer to use their regional search engines to find what they look for around their place. Here are few examples of regional search engines.
http://www.philb.com/countryse.htm
http://www.searchenginecolossus.com
Topical Search Engines: 
There are many search engines which really focuses on certain distinct topic like sports, music, fashion etc.. and these search engines does have a decent amount of user base who are really interested on the topic. Here are few search engines of that kind.
http://www.yellow.com
http://www.brittannica.com
http://www.artnet.com
http://www.worldexecutive.com
http://kids.yahoo.com
Web-Spider Based Search Engines: 
These type of search engines use specially designed spiders and bots which crawls the web to find and index pages. These bots are totally automated and doesn’t have any human interruption. Google, Yahoo and Bing from Microsoft use the exact same method.
Hybrid Search Engines: 
Hybrid search engines are something which include variety of search results on their webpage. Google is a very good example for this kind of search engine. Let do a simple search in Google for the term “seo your blog” and see what do we come up with.

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