1899-First use of cine-camera. H.S. Bhatavdekr imports a cine-camera from London. He films a wrestling bout at hanging gardens in Bombay, the first documentary.
1902-First bioscope show. J.F.Madan launches his bioscope show in a tent at Culcutta maidan.
1907-First Indian cinema hall. J.F.Madan opens the elphinstone picture palace in Culcutta, the first of his cinema chains.
1913-First heroin A young boy, Salunke, who plays Taramati in Dadasaheb’s phalke’s Raja Harischandra. The first true heroin is Kamalabai Gokhale.
1913-First hero Dattatraya Damodar Dabake becomes the first hero, as Raja Harischandra in eponymous film, India’s first full-length feature.
1915-First animation Agkadyanchi Mouj, made by Phalke, is the first animation film after his earlier unreleased attempt of 1912, called the Growth of the Pea Plant.
1918-Indian Cinematograph Act The terms of the censorship and licensing are spelt out. In 1920, censor boards set up in Bombay, Culcutta, and Madras.
1921-First censorship controversy Kanjibhai Rathod’s Bhakt Vidur, released around the time of the Rawlatt Act, is seen as “politically subversive” and banned in Madras and Karachi.
1923-First film poster Baburao painter creates a poster for his film Maya Bazaar, also known as Vatsala Haran.
1929-First lip-lock Seeta Devi and Charu Roy lock lips in the silent film Throw of Dice. Some say Lalitha Pawar was the first to kiss in Pati Bhakti, made in 1922.
1931-First film song De De Khuda Ke Naam Par Pyare, sung by W.M.Khan for Alam Ara; its composer phiroz Shah Mistry, the first music director.
1931-First talkie Ardeshir Irani’s Alam Ara releases on March 14 at Bombay’s majestic Cinema. Audiences actually hear a film for the first time.
1935-First stunt film With Hunterwali, starring Fearless Nadia, the stunt film is accepted as a respectable big-budget genre.
1937-First International recognition Sant Tukaram, released at Central Cinema, Bombay, in 1936, receives Special Jury mention at the 5th Venice International Film Festival.
1937-First colour film Kisan Kanya, by Moti B. Gidwani, is the first colour film processed in India. The earlier colour effort, Sairandhri, was processed in Germany.
1938-First camera crane Wadia Moviestone uses the camera crane, built in its own workshop under B.M.Tara’s supervision.
1943-First certified blockbuster Gyan Mukherjee’s Kismet has leading man Ashok Kumar play an anti-hero; incorporate themes like pre-marital pregnancy.
1945-Rafi’s first screen appearance Mohd Rafi makes an appearance in Laila Majnu, music director Madan Mohan tries out his acting chops in Parda, 1947.
1946-Lata Mangeshkar’s Bollywood debut Paa Lagu Kar Jori Re in the film Aap Ki Sewa Mein is her first Bollywood song.
1946-Canes Grand Prize Chetan Anand’s Neecha Nagar wins Grand Prize at the first Cannes Film Festival.
1948-RK films set up Raj Kapoor starts RK Films, builds his studio in 1950. Its iconic logo is based on the famous Raj Kapoor-Nargis clinch from Barsaat (1949).
1950-First ‘A’ film Akash Chitra’s Hanste Aansu is the first Hindi feature film to get an ‘A’ certicificate. Social Evil, a 1929 docu-drama, got an ‘A’ tag.
1951-First comedy film Bhagwan Dada’s Albela, a musical featuring Shola Jo Bhadke…Dil Mera Dhadke, Bholi Soorat Dil Ke Khote, is arguably the first comedy film.
1952-IFFI The First Internation Film Festival of India is organized by Films Division (set up in 1949) in Bombay, Madras, and Culcutta.
1954-First National Awards The Marathi Film Shyamchi Aai, directed by P.K.Atre, and Jagat Murali’s short film Mahabalipuram win the very first National Awards.
1957-First Academy Awards Entry Mother India releases. It is India’s first submission for Best Foreign Language film in 1958, and is nominated.
1959-First film in cinemascope Gurudutt’s Kaagaz Ke Phool is the first widescreen film, shot with cinemascope lenses from 20th century fox. Bombs at the box office.
1960-Lavish production cost of Asif’s Magnum Opus Mughal E Azam touches $330,000 in the twelve years of its making.
1962-First Bhojpuri film Ganga Maiya Tohe Piyari Chadhaibo is the first film made in Bhojpuri.
1964-Switzerland The snowy slopes of Switzerland make their debut in Bollywood with Sangam. Triggers the trend of shooting songs abroad.
1967-First 70-mm film Pachhi’s romcom Around The World is shot in 70-mm using blow-up method and stereophonic sound. Later in 1975, Sholay too shot in 70-mm format.
1969- New Wave Mrinal’s Sen’s Bhuvan Shome (right) and Mani Kaul’s Uski Roti usher in an all-new experimentation in technique from the narrative.
1971-Cup runneth over India makes 433 feature films, making it the world’s biggest film producer.
1972-First horror film Do Gaz Zameen Ke Neeche sees the Ramsey spearhead the genre. Earlier film dealt with reincarnation and ghosts, but weren’t gory.
1973-Indie, Love Story, Bobby boosts the love story genre. At the other end of the spectrum, Shyam Benegal’s Ankur paves the way for middle-of-the-road cinema trend.
1973-Angry Young Man Bottled-up anger, exploding into action takes centre stage with inspector Vijay in Zanjeer.
1975-Sholay breaks all records, Becomes the first film to celebrate a silver jubilee in more than 100 cinema; runs for over five years at Mumbai’s Minerva theatre.
1977-First actor CM MGR is the first actor to become a chief minister; is CM of Tamilnadu from 1977 to 1987.
1982-Colour TV enters living rooms. One of the earliest colour film to be seen in colour on TV Ray’s Shatranj Ke Khiladi.
1983-First Oscar for India Bhanu Athaiya becomes the first Indian to win the academy award for Costume Design for her work in Richard Attenborough’s Gandhi.
1983-Rajanikanth’s Hindi debut The southern superstar is seen in Andha Kanoon,with Amitabh Bachchan and Hema Malini.
1984-First 3D film Malayalam film My Dear Kuttichathan uses 3D technology. It is later dubbed in Hindi as Chhota Chetan. The first Hindi 3D movie Shiva Ka Insaaf.
1989-Salaam Bombay! Mira Nair’s gritty, heart-wrenching film becomes the second Indian film to make it to the Oscar’s Best Foreign Language category.
1992-Honorary Oscar Days before his death, Satyajith Ray gets the Honorary Oscar for lifetime achievement “in recognition of the mastery of the art of motion pictures….”
1994-Musical megahit The 14-song musical Hum Aapke Hain Koun is declared the biggest hit in the history of indian cinema.
1995-’item’ number Sonali Bendre’s Humma Humma dance in the film Bombay is the first item song in Indian cinema, though the term is not used yet.
1996-First film on homosexuality Deepa Mehta’s Fire creates a furore over its open depiction of lesbianism and is banned.
1997-First multiplex PVR Anupam, with four screens, opens in Delhi.
1999-First insured film for Taal, Subhash Ghai’s Mukta Arts took an insurance policy worth ruppees 11 crores against shooting schedule disturbances or accidents.
2002-Lagaan’s Oscar nomination Ashutosh Gowariker’s Lagaan makes it to the Best Foreign Language Film category at the Oscars.
2009-Double Oscar A.R.Rahman wins 2 Oscars for Danny Boyle’s Slumdog Millionaire. Resulpookutty bags an Oscar for best sound mixing.
2010-Digicam film Dibakar Banerjee’s Love Sex Aur Dhokha is shot on a handheld digicam, in the found footage style.
2011-Most expensive At $30 million, Shahrukh Khan’s ambitious superhero flick Ra.One becomes the most expensive film till date.
2012-World’s largest film studio The 2,700-acre Prayag film City at Chandrakona,West Bengal,is unveiled. When it becomes fully operational next year,it will become the world’s largest film studio complex,taking the crown away from Ramoji film city in Hyderabad.
Compiled by Anju Abraham, II MJMC, August, 2012.
Source: Outlook, Cinema Special, July, 2012.
Film genres are various forms or identifiable types, categories, classifications or groups of films that are recurring and have similar, familiar or instantly-recognizable patterns, syntax, filmic techniques or conventions
They include include one or more of the following:
* Settings and props
* Content and subject matter
* Central narrative events
* Recurring icons
* Stock characters and stars
Many films are considered hybrids - they straddle several film genres
*By the end of the silent era, many of the main genres were established: the melodrama, the western, the horror film, comedies, and action-adventure films (from swashbucklers to war movies).
* Musicals were inaugurated with the era of the Talkies, and the genre of science-fiction films wasn’t generally popularized until the 1950s.
* One problem with genre films is that they can become stale, cliche-ridden, and over-imitated.
* A traditional genre that has been reinterpreted, challenged, or subjected to scrutiny may be termed revisionist.
Main Film Genres
· Action films
This major genre type includes films that have tremendous impact, continuous high energy, lots of physical stunts and activity, possibly extended chase scenes, races, rescues, battles, martial arts, mountains and mountaineering, destructive disasters (floods, explosions, natural disasters, fires, etc.), fights, escapes, non-stop motion, spectacular rhythm and pacing, and adventurous heroes - all designed for pure audience escapism with the action sequences at the core of the film.
· Adventure films
These are exciting stories, with new experiences or exotic locales. Adventure films are very similar to the action film genre, in that they are designed to provide an action-filled, energetic experience for the film viewer. Rather than the predominant emphasis on violence and fighting that is found in action films, however, the viewer of adventure films can live vicariously through the travels, conquests, explorations, creation of empires, struggles and situations that confront the main characters, actual historical figures or protagonists.
· Comedy films
These are “make ‘em laugh” films designed to elicit laughter from the audience. Comedies are light-hearted dramas, crafted to amuse, entertain, and provoke enjoyment. The comedy genre humorously exaggerates the situation, the language, action, and characters. Comedies observe the deficiencies, foibles, and frustrations of life, providing merriment and a momentary escape from day-to-day life. They usually have happy endings, although the humor may have a serious or pessimistic side.
· Crime & Gangster films
These films are developed around the sinister actions of criminals or gangsters, particularly bank robbers, underworld figures, or ruthless hoodlums who operate outside the law, stealing and violently murdering their way through life.
· Drama films
These are serious presentations or stories with settings or life situations that portray realistic characters in conflict with either themselves, others, or forces of nature. A dramatic film shows us human beings at their best, their worst, and everything in-between
· Epics/Historical films
They are often take an historical or imagined event, mythic, legendary, or heroic figure, and add an extravagant setting and lavish costumes, accompanied by grandeur and spectacle and a sweeping musical score. Epics, costume dramas, historical dramas, war film epics, medieval romps, or ‘period pictures’ are tales that often cover a large expanse of time set against a vast, panoramic backdrop
· Horror films
They are unsettling films designed to frighten and panic, cause dread and alarm, and to invoke our hidden worst fears, often in a terrifying, shocking finale, while captivating and entertaining us at the same time in a cathartic experience. Horror films effectively center on the dark side of life, the forbidden, and strange and alarming events. They deal with our most primal nature and its fears: our nightmares, our vulnerability, our alienation, our revulsions, our terror of the unknown, our fear of death and dismemberment, loss of identity, or fear of sexuality.
· Musical (Dance) films
They are cinematic forms that emphasize and showcase full-scale song and dance routines in a significant way (usually with a musical or dance performance as part of the film narrative, or as an unrealistic “eruption” within the film). Or they are films that are centered on combinations of music, dance, song or choreography.
· Science Fiction films
They are usually scientific, visionary, comic-strip-like, and imaginative, and usually visualized through fanciful, imaginative settings, expert film production design, advanced technology gadgets (i.e., robots and spaceships), scientific developments, or by fantastic special effects. Sci-fi films are complete with heroes, distant planets, impossible quests, improbable settings, fantastic places, great dark and shadowy villains, futuristic technology and gizmos, and unknown and inexplicable forces. Many other SF films feature time travels or fantastic journeys, and are set either on Earth, into outer space, or (most often) into the future time
· War (anti-war) films
They often acknowledge the horror and heartbreak of war, letting the actual combat fighting or conflict (against nations or humankind) provide the primary plot or background for the action of the film.
They are the major defining genre of the American film industry, a nostalgic eulogy to the early days of the expansive, untamed American frontier (the borderline between civilization and the wilderness). They are one of the oldest, most enduring and flexible genres and one of the most characteristically American genres in their mythic origins. The popularity of westerns has waxed and waned over the years. Their most prolific era was in the 1930s to the 1960s, and most recently in the 90s, there was a resurgence of the genre
· Detective and mystery films
· Disaster films
· Fantasy films
· Film Noir
· Guy films
· Melodramas, women’s or “weeper” films
· Road films
· Romance films
· Sports films
· Supernatural films
· Thriller-suspense films
Other major film categories
· Animated films
· British (UK) films
· Childrens - Kids – Family oriented films
· Classic films
· Cult films
· Documentary films
· Serial films
· Sexual-erotic films
· Silent films
Compiled by: Anju Susan James
II MJMC, August 2012.
Points at a Glance
GENRE - Method of classifying movies based on narrative elements
- Targets specific kind of audience promising specific kind of entertainment
- Unwritten, common norms internalised by producers and consumers of industrial cinema
- Hence, primarily a frame work to classify commercial films
- Nature of the genre related to the culture of the place
Eg: Hollywood genre - popular literature
- uniquely American
-Fordist necessity -mass production- less time
Louis B Mayer
David O Selznick
- Provide a tradition with which filmmakers can work
- Helped to decide the role of visual media in the society
* Genre work through repetitions and variations on a set of familiar story lines, characters and ideological themes.
* They solve familiar problems arising out of familiar situations
* They propagate an array of moral, political and social values.
Eg: Hollywood genre - solutions to ideological contradictions of capitalist liberalism
* Acting, setting, musical score and editing largely shaped by the genres
* Sometimes, they are overcome by strong directorial presence where genre plays second fiddle to authorial signature
- Srikanth Srinivasan
The Hindu, Cinema Plus, July 22, 2012
Director: Tasos Boulmetis
Run time: 108 minutes.
Story of a Greek boy growing up in Istanbul with the guidance of his culinary philosopher and mentor grandfather.
The boy, Fanis grows up as an excellent cook and astrologer, but he realises that he had forgotten to put a little bit of spice in his own life.
Producer: Stanimir Trifonov
Director: Magdalena Ralcheva
Script: Georgi Danailov
Director of Photography: Alexsander Lazarov
Production Designer: Vladimir Lekarski
Composer: Bozhidar Petkov
Sound: Alexander Simeonov
Editor: Ivan Dechev
Cast: Kalin Vrachanski, Simeon Lyutakov, Sepide Delforuz, Maria Statulova, Velko Kunev, Dimo Alexiev
Production Company Nuance Film Bulgaria
The film is based on a true story from the life of the great Bulgarian surgeon Dr Ivan Rumenov. It is set in the first months of 1945, in a seaside town from where the doctor is banished for the sole reason that he had worked as assistant to the renowned Professor Alexander Stanishev, who was convicted and executed by the so-called “People’s Court”.
When leaving Sofia, he not only had to give up his brilliant career, but also leave behind the woman he loved. In the small town, the doctor meets Dikran, a pleasant young Armenian photographer. The two become good friends and the doctor is a welcome guest at the home of the Armenian and his nurturing mother.
Gradually, Dr. Rumenov wins the hearts of his new fellow townsmen, and a number of alluring pleasures are in store for his friend…
Awards: Best Camera for Alexander Lazarov, Berdyansk FF, Ukraine, 2011
Kærestesorger (original title)
Reviewed after the screening in Europe in Love, Film Festival held at PSG IM on July 10, 2012.
A bunch of 15-year-olds in Viborg make their first experiences with love, kissing and sexuality, coming together and drifting apart. The film follows the adolescents over a three-year-period, focusing on the relationship between Jonas and Agnete, which is made difficult by misconceptions, Agnete’s interest for philosophy and Jonas’s friend Toke, her father’s mental illness and Jonas’s own indecision regarding his feelings for her. The story ends when the protagonists finish school.
Written by tonnenleger for IMDb.
There’s no doubt about it, breaking into Hollywood as a scriptwriter is tough. Thousands of scripts are sent each year, some don’t get read, most get rejected and a few make it.
If you want your script to become a viable commodity it has to have the following.
• A main character who is driven towards achieving a goal
• An opposition to your main character who will hold your main character back from achieving their goal
• A fight (literal or metaphorical) between your main character and their opposition
• An ending which answers the questions “Can the main character achieve his goal?”
If your script can present such a story, along with a well thought out main character who the audience can relate to then you will all ready have the jump on most scriptwriters.
Remember that once you have sold your script how it is presented and portrayed is all in the hands of the director and the actors. If you want the story in your script to shine then your structure must be solid. Think of the story structure as the framework and foundation of your scipt, from which you can create a wonderful piece of architecture. It doesn’t matter how good the story idea, if your structure is weak then the story will fall flat.
Basic Script Formatting
There are three bodies of a script: Headings, narrative and dialogue. Each of these has three points to remember.
Headings: 1.Master scene headings which include: a) Camera location - EXT. (exterior or outside) or INT. (interior or inside) b) Scene location (LOCAL RACE TRACK) c) Time (DAY or NIGHT) 2. Secondary scene heading .
3. “Special headings” for things such as montages, dream sequences, flashbacks, flash forwards, etc.
1. Action . 2. Character and settings (visual) 3. Sounds
Dialogue: 1. The name of the person speaking appears at the top, in CAPS.
2. The actors direction (AKA parenthetical or wryly). Try to avoid these as much as possible. Both the director and actor will appreciate it.
3. The speech.
If there’s one thing that seems to put off prospective scriptwriters more than anything else it’s not knowing how to correctly format a script. There are basically two ways to do this. Either buy a piece of scriptwriting software which does the bulk of the work for you (I recommend Final Draft) or you learn how to do it yourself and use a typewriter or programme like Microsoft Word.
If a Hollywood executive comes across a script with poor formatting then he will instantly dismiss it as the work of an amateur and not bother reading it. The script could be a sure fire box office smash but without correct format it will probably never even be read.
The script that you are trying to sell is known as a spec script. This is because it’s written under the speculation it will be optioned later. At this stage it is important to avoid adding camera angles, editing directions, or anything technical unless absolutely necessary. You might have read a Tarantino or Kubrick script littered with these but that’s because they are writer/directors. If you’re selling your first script it is a lot easier to do purely as a scriptwriter rather than writer/director. Production companies are a lot more likely to take a risk on an unknown writer than an unknown writer-director.
It’s been said that a truly great character can save an otherwise poor script. In a perfect world every script would tell a great story and be chock full of interesting characters, however this isn’t a perfect world.
Some people are great storytellers who provide a fantastical narrative to their script but the characters feel lifeless and more like props to tell the story when, in fact, in should be a cast of scintillating character moving the script along.
The Idea Factory
A lot of people come to me complaining that they’re good scriptwriters but they can never come up with ideas. The fact of the matter is that everybody can come up with ideas if you devote the time and effort to it. Brainstorming seems to be a lost art today, when people should be devoting time to drumming up these ideas you will instead find them reading their emails, playing games and many other forms of procrastination.
I know because I do it myself. It can be very mentally challenging to just sit down, with no distractions and think.
Without an idea a script cannot come to be. If you were to just sit down and attempt to write a script from whatever was in your head at the time you’d probably get about 10 pages in, lose steam and develop “writers block”
If you want to succeed as a scriptwriter than you really need to put in the thinking time when it comes to your initial script idea.
It would be no good for me to come up with a specific schedule for you to keep because everyone is creatively different. Personally I feel most creative around midnight, your best time could be when you’ve just got home from work and feel ready to vent your spleen.
What this section of the site is for is to help provide a loose structure and guide for how to create ideas with the potential to be developed into a script. Some ideas will be tried and tested (brainstorming, walking on your idea, etc) while others might be considered a little wilder (my own secret method, hypnosis, etc).
Submitted by Naneetha.R, II MA Communication, October, 2011.
A storyboard for a Taco Belltelevision campaign.
The storyboarding process, in the form it is known today, was developed at the Walt Disney Studio during the early 1930s, after several years of similar processes being in use at Walt Disney and other animation studios.
This is where it all begins. The first step is to understand what you are trying to communicate and what your intended message is. If you don’t understand your message, no one will. Creating a script or storyboard will help ensure that you and your audience understands your intent.
Think of your video as a story. All good stories contain certain elements. When creating your story keep in mind the 5 W’s; Who, What, When, Where, and Why. This will help you fill in the main body of your story. Additionally, there are some general terms that you should be familiar with; protagonist, antagonist, plot, setting, turning point, dialog, introduction, conclusion, narration, and points of view.
There are two main styles for laying out your story - a storyboard or a script. They each have their pros and cons. Continue on to find which one best suits your needs.
As seen in the accompanying picture, a storyboard contains a rough sketch representation of the video. A storyboard is essentially a timeline going from top to bottom, with the top occurring first. Using a storyboard allows you to see what the scene will look like. This is one of the major advantages a storyboard has over a script. The storyboard method is also generally thought to provide a better overview than the scripting method.
The script style is similar to reading a book. It is very useful for dialog intense pieces. If you do have a piece with a considerable amount of dialog, use the video side to indicate who is speaking, or what reaction the character should have. This is more in line with a traditional play script. Often your talent will benefit more from this method than the storyboard, as they are more interested in their lines than creating a story.
Submitted by Naneetha.R, II MA Communication, October, 2011.
Characterization is revealed through direct characterization and indirect characterization.
Direct Characterization tells the audience what the personality of the character is.
Example: “The patient boy and quiet girl were both well mannered and did not disobey their mother.”
Explanation: The author is directly telling the audience the personality of these two children. The boy is “patient” and the girl is “quiet.”
Indirect Characterization shows things that reveal the personality of a character. There are five different methods of indirect characterization:
(1) Showing the character’s appearance
(2) Displaying the character’s actions
(3) Revealing the character’s thoughts
(4) Letting the character speak and
(5) Getting the reactions of others.
Submitted by Naneetha.R, II MA Communication, October, 2011.
Monday, 28 February 2011 16:59
Title: The Ridley’s Last Stand
Three secluded beaches in Orissa, on the east coast of India play host to an extraordinary natural drama. On certain nights between January and May, when the south wind blows fiercely, tens of thousands of female olive Ridley’s climb ashore to lay over a hundred eggs each.
The sun and sand incubate the eggs and approximately 45 days later they hatch under cover of darkness. This time millions of tiny hatchlings make their way in the opposite direction - towards the sea, where they will spend the rest of their lives. 10-15 years later, those that survive will return as mature adults to lay their eggs on the very beach where they were born. For as long as is known Ridley’s have been nesting on these beaches.
As a species they have been around for millions of years, but today these gentle giants of the sea are in conflict with man. During the last decade alone over 100,000 adult olive Ridley’s have been killed accidentally by drowning in trawl and gill nets of mechanized fishing boats that ply these waters. With the fishing season coinciding with the migration of the turtles to Orissa for nesting, nets often contain more turtles than fish. Perhaps no other endangered species is being killed wantonly in such numbers anywhere else in the world.
THE RIDLEY’S LAST STAND is a poignant look at the lives and times of the Olive Ridley’s that visit Orissa, and provides new insights into the natural history and conservation of these mysterious creatures. A self-financed, pro bono film, it was completed in 2003 after two years of effort by the filmmaker.
Shown to key policy makers, conservation NGOs and the general public (through many public screenings), the film, which depicts both the problems and their solutions, resulted in a lot of awareness and some action, such as the Indian Coast Guard being given special powers to arrest mechanized fishing boats operating in ‘no fishing’ zones.
However, due to a multitude of stakeholders and vested interests and absolutely no political will on the part of the Government of Orissa, there has been no lasting impact. Thousands of turtles continue to die needlessly every year.
Non-Profit DVD Available.
Producer: Shekar Dattatri
Duration: 45 minutes
Production Year: 2003