गुरुवार, 28 फ़रवरी 2013
plant sciences / FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM
ave Nature to
6(1) : 289-291, 2011
EFFECT OF DIFFERENT pH LEVELS ON THE GROWTH AND
SCHLECHT. F. SP.
(VASUDEVA AND SRINIVASAN) THE CAUSAL ORGANISM
OF WILT DISEASE OF LENTIL
HIMANSHU BHUSHAN JARUHAR* AND AJAY PRASAD
Department of Botany, S. P. D. College, Garhwa - 822 114, Jharkhand
Department of Botany, S. S. J. S. N. College, Garhwa - 822 114, Jharkhand
Schlecht f sp.
Srinivasan) causes a serious wilt disease in lentil (
Moench.) which is an important pulse crop of Palamu
commissionary (23º52’North latitude and 84º17’East
longitude). Due to this disease there is huge loss of the yield in
lentil. Vasudeva and Srinivasan (1952) have reported that Wilt
disease of lentil caused by
is one of the serious
disease and it causes huge loss of the standing crop throughout
the world. The extent of the damage to the crop due to the
disease ranges from 20-24% annually, (Saxena
1990 and Ali, 2007). There were various reports that indicate
spp grow at different pH levels for growth and
sporulation (Wilson, 1946; Srobar, 1978; Prasad
Souramma and Singh, 2004; Groenewald, 2005). The
pathogen is soil born and infects the host during seedling
stage through root and blocks the vascular system (Vasudeva
and Srinivasan, 1952). For the successful cultivation of the
lentil it is necessary to investigate the physiology of the fungus.
Therefore, effect of different pH level on the growth and
Schlecht. f. sp.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The fungus was isolated from the infected plant of lentil (
Moench). Monospore culture as described by
Prasad and Chaudhary (1966, 1967) was employed in the
present study. From the culture of the isolates, pure culture
was obtained using 10
decimal level dilution plate technique.
Sucrose nitrate medium consisting of sucrose (50.0g), KNO
O (2.5g) and 1000 mL
double distilled water used as basal medium. There were 10
different pH level ranging from 2.0 to 6.5 with a difference of
0.5 were prepared by using pocket size pH meter HANNA
Instrument Co. Mouritius by using either N/10 HCl or NaOH
before autoclaving. 100 mL of the medium was taken in 250
mL conical flask and five replicate sets were used in each
case. The solution was autoclaved at 15 psi for 15 minutes.
The inoculation was done with 3 mm discs of the fungus
culture cut with a sterilized cork borer from a margin of 10
days old colony growing in Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA)
medium. Flasks’ were then inoculated at 26ºC ± 2ºC for two
weeks. The mean dry weight of the mycelium was determined
as described by Prasad and Chaudhary (1966). The number
of spores was counted using known depth of Haemocytometer
slide (0.01 cm) using the formula:
Effect of pH on the growth and sporulation of
Schlecht . f . sp.
Srinivansan) after incubation of two weeks
culture in sucrose nitrate medium was studied. pH level 6.0
was found optimum for the growth as well as sporulation of the fungus. Sporulation of chlamydospore was
however found best in the pH level 4.0. Further increases in the pH level show retarding effect on growth and
sporulation. Size of the spores increases with increase in the pH range.
Received on :
Accepted on :
Number of spores / 100 mL = V/NX100
N = Average number of spores per square of the four corner
square of haemocytometer counted.
HIMANSHU BHUSHAN JARUHAR AND AJAY PRASAD
and sporulation of the fungus. On the other hand sporulation
of chlamydospores at more acidic range indicates that this
spore is characteristically different from other two spores and
more tolerable to stressed condition than the macro and micro
authors are happy to record the grateful cooperation of
the persons concerned of the G.L. A. College, Medininagar, in
the completion of this work.
Ali, M. 2007.
Augmentation of Pulses Production. Mission2007: IIPR
Kanpur-24: pp: 16-21
Chaudhary, S. K. 1971.
Studies of the Physiology of the
(Butler) Snyder and Hansen (Causal Organism of
(Linn.) Millsp) Ph.D. Thesis, Deptt. of Bot.
Ranchi University Ranchi, p. 297.
Groenewald, S. 2005.
Biology, Pathogenicity and Diversity of
. M.Sc. (Agri.) Thesis. Faculty of
Natural and Agricultural Science, Universiity of Pretoria etd, Pretoria.
Jat, R. G. and Goyal, J. P. 1978.
Physiological Studies of
Causing Ergot Diseases of Bajra.
Ind. J. Mycol. and Pl.
Kishore, R., Pandey, M., Dubey, K. and Kumar, Y. 2009.
Temperature and pH on Growth and Sporulation of
(Bolley) Snyder and Hensan Causing Linseed
Mix, A. J. 1933.
Factors Affecting the Sporulation of
Munjal, R. L. and Gautam, S. R. 1977.
Effect of vitamins on growth
and sporulation of
. Indian Phytopath.
Nair, P. N. 1957.
Factors Affecting Resistance of Flax to
(Belley). Dis. Abstr.
Prasad, A., Chaudhary, R. S. and Chaudhary, S. K. 1992.
Different pH levels on Growth and Sporulation of
Wr. and Rg., The Causal Organism of
Wilt of Maize.
4(1 and 2):
S. No. pH range Dry wt. in mg. Spores in millions /100mL medium* Size of spores in μ*
Macro conidia Micro conidia Chlamydo spores Macro conidia Micro conidia Chlamydo spores
1 2.0 37.00 0.67 2.62 0.39 26.20 7.20 4.90
2 2.5 53.00 0.78 3.63 3.51 27.70 7.30 4.90
3 3.0 73.00 1.17 4.06 3.64 28.20 8.10 6.10
4 3.5 93.00 1.55 7.42 5.20 28.90 8.90 6.30
5 4.0 124.00 1.69 9.37
4.03 29.20 9.60 7.30
6 4.5 169.00 1.95
13.68 3.71 30.70 9.80 7.50
7 5.0 198.00 2.19
19.68 3.71 31.20 10.70 7.50
8 5.5 276.00 2.62
69.14 2.73 33.30 12.30 8.20
9 6.0 476.00 5.86 154.03
2.19 34.20 12.90 8.30
10 6.5 210.00 3.69 132.42
3.51 31.10 9.20 8.50
SE± 15.24 1.50 5.78 1.74 0.05 0.18 0.24
C.D. at p= (5%) 30.97 3.14
11.75 3.54 0.11 0.36 0.48
Table 1: Effect of different pH levels of mycelia growth, spore population and size of spore change of
Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht. F.
(Vasudeva and Srinivasan). Incubation period: 2 Weeks
*mean of five replicates
V = Volume of haemocytometer (0.256 x10
Length of the spores was measured by calibrated ocular
micrometer under compound microscope (10 x 45 x of
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The mean dry weight of mycelium and sporulation of three
spore forms of the fungus on different pH levels is recorded in
Table 1. The perusal of the results showed that
Schlecht. f. sp. l
grew maximum in pH 6.0.
Very high acidic range of pH showed very poor growth of
mycelium. Mycelial mat accumulation increased with increase
in pH but declined after pH 6.0. Sporulation of the
macroconidia and microconidia was observed to be
maximum at pH 6.0. Least sporulation occurred in pH 2.0.
Chlamydospores produced were noted to be the maximum at
pH 4.0. Length of macroconidia and microconidia were the
maximum at pH 6.0 and thereafter it started to decline. Diameter
of chlamydospores increased with increase in pH level.
The growth and sporulation of many fungi have been studied
under the influence of various pH levels. Mix (1933) found
that pH range from 4 to 8 showed good growth for
Wilson (1946) observed acid soil (pH 4.2) support
spp. where as a pH near neutrality prevents
growth. Chaudhary (1971) and Prasad
. (1992) reported
6.0 pH level as the best for the growth and sporulation of
Wr. and Rg. Munjal
and Gautam (1977) observed that maximum fungal growth
and sporulation occurred at pH 6.0 and 5.5 respectively for
. Srobar (1978) found pH 6 to be the most
suitable for the growth of all species while a highly acidic
medium was unsuitable for sporulation of all species causing
fusarioses disease in wheat. Jat and Goyal (1978) found that
growth and sporulation of
optimum at pH 7.5 and 6.0 respectively. Nair(1957); Souramma
and Singh (2004); Groenewald (2005); Kishore
also found pH 5.5 to 7.0 to be the best for growth and
Fusarium oxysporum f.
( Belley). Such
reports are in agreement with present findings for this pathogen.
This indicates that unusual acidity badly hampered the growth