The editing process often begins with the author's idea for the work itself, continuing as a collaboration between the author and the editor as the work is created. As such, editing can involve creative skills, human relations and a precise set of methods.
The top editor at many publications may be known as the chief editor, executive editor, or simply the editor. A frequent and highly regarded contributor to a magazine may acquire the title of editor-at-large or contributing editor. Mid-level newspaper editors often manage or help to manage sections, such as business, sports and features. In U.S. newspapers, the level below the top editor is usually the managing editor.
In the book publishing industry, editors may organize anthologies and other compilations, produce definitive editions of a classic author's works (scholarly editor), and organize and manage contributions to a multi-author book (symposium editor or volume editor). Obtaining manuscripts or recruiting authors is the role of an Acquisitions Editor or a commissioning editor in a publishing house. Finding marketable ideas and presenting them to appropriate authors are the responsibilities of a sponsoring editor.
Copy editors correct spelling, grammar and align writings to house style. Changes to the publishing industry since the 1980s have resulted in nearly all copy editing of book manuscripts being outsourced to freelance copy editors.
At newspapers and wire services, copy editors write headlines and work on more substantive issues, such as ensuring accuracy, fairness, and taste. In some positions, they design pages and select news stories for inclusion. At U.K. and Australian newspapers, the term is sub-editor. They may choose the layout of the publication and communicate with the printer. These editors may have the title of layout or design editor or (more so in the past) makeup editor.
- 1 Scholarly books and journals
- 2 Technical editing
- 3 Editing services
- 4 See also
- 5 References
- 6 Further reading
- 7 External links
Scholarly books and journalsWithin the publishing environment, editors of scholarly books are of three main types, each with particular responsibilities:
- Acquisitions editor (or commissioning editor in Britain), who contracts with the author to produce the copy
- Project editor or production editor, who sees the copy through its stages from manuscript to bound book and usually assumes most of the budget and schedule responsibilities
- Copy editor or manuscript editor, who prepares the copy for conversion into printed form.
As for scholarly journals, where spontaneous submissions are more common than commissioned works, the position of journal editor or editor-in-chief replaces the acquisitions editor of the book publishing environment, while the roles of production editor and copy editor remain. However, another editor is sometimes involved in the creation of scholarly research articles. Called the authors' editor, this editor works with authors to get a manuscript fit for purpose before it is submitted to a scholarly journal for publication.
The primary difference between copy editing scholarly books and journals and other sorts of copy editing lies in applying the standards of the publisher to the copy. Most scholarly publishers have a preferred style which usually specifies the choice of a dictionary and a style manual, for example, the Chicago Manual of Style, the MLA Style Manual or the APA Publication Manual in the US, or the New Hart's Rules in the U.K.
Technical editingTechnical editing involves reviewing text written on a technical topic, identifying usage errors and ensuring adherence to a style guide.
Technical editing may include the correction of grammatical mistakes, misspellings, mistyping, incorrect punctuation, inconsistencies in usage, poorly structured sentences, wrong scientific terms, wrong units and dimensions, inconsistency in significant figures, technical ambivalence, technical disambiguation, statements conflicting with general scientific knowledge, correction of synopsis, content, index, headings and subheadings, correcting data and chart presentation in a research paper or report, and correcting errors in citations.
In large companies, experienced writers are dedicated to the technical editing function. In organizations that cannot afford dedicated editors, experienced writers typically peer-edit text produced by their less experienced colleagues.
It helps if the technical editor is familiar with the subject being edited. The "technical" knowledge that an editor gains over time while working on a particular product or technology does give the editor an edge over another who has just started editing content related to that product or technology. But essential general skills are attention to detail, the ability to sustain focus while working through lengthy pieces of text on complex topics, tact in dealing with writers, and excellent communication skills.
Editing firms may employ a team of in-house editors, rely on a network of individual contractors or both. Such firms are able to handle editing in a wide range of topics and genres, depending on the skills of individual editors. The services provided by these editors may be varied and can include proofreading, copy editing, line editing, developmental editing, editing for search engine optimization (SEO), etc.
Self-employed editors work directly for clients (e.g., authors, publishers) or offer their services through editing firms, or both. They may specialize in a type of editing (e.g., copy editing) and in a particular subject area. Those who work directly for authors and develop professional relationships with them are called authors' editors.
- Audio editing
- Film editing
- Society for Editors and Proofreaders — UK based
- Stealth edit
- Video editing
- Textual scholarship
- Morrison, Blake (6 August 2005). "Black day for the blue pencil". The Guardian.
- Overholser, Geneva (December 1998). "Editor Inc.". American Journalism Review.
- Stephen, Leslie (1898). "The Evolution of Editors". Studies of a Biographer 1. London: Duckworth and Co. pp. 37–73.
Look up editing in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
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सामयिक घटना या विषय पर अग्रलेख तथा संपादकीय लिखना, विभिन्न प्रकार के समाचारों पर उनकी तुलनात्मक महत्ता के अनुसार उनपर विभिन्न आकार प्रकार के शीर्षक (हेडलाइन, फ़्लैश, बैनर) देना, अश्लील, अपमानजनक तथा आपत्तिजनक बातें न लिखते हुए सत्यता, ओज, स्पष्टवादिता, निर्भीकता तथा निष्पक्षता के साथ अन्याय का विरोध करना, जनता की भावनाओं का प्रतिनिधित्व करना, जनता का पथप्रदर्शन करना और लोकमत निर्माण करना दैनिक पत्र के संपादन के अंतर्गत आता है। साप्ताहिक पत्रों में अन्य सब बातें तो दैनिक पत्र जैसी ही होती हैं किंतु उसमें विचारपूर्ण निबंध, कहानियाँ, विवरण, विवेचन आदि सूचनात्मक, पठनीय और मननीय सामग्री भी रहती है। अत: उसके लेखों, साप्ताहिक समाचारों, अन्य मनोरंजक सामग्रियों तथा बालक, महिला आदि विशेष वर्गो के लिए संकलित सामग्री भी रहती है। अत: उसके लेखों, साप्ताहिक समाचारों, अन्य मनोरंजक सामग्रियों तथा बालक, महिला आदि विशेष वर्गों के लिए संकलित सामग्री का चुनाव और संपादन उन विशेष वर्गों की योग्यता और अवस्था का ध्यान रखते हुए लोकशील की दृष्टि से करना पड़ता है। इसी प्रकार वाचकों द्वारा प्रेषित प्रश्नों के उत्तर भी लोकशील तथा तथ्य की दृष्टि से परीक्षित करके समाविष्ट करना आवश्यक होता है।
मासिक या सावधिक पत्र मुख्यत: विचारपत्र होते हैं जिनमें गंभीर तथा शोधपूर्ण लेखों की अधिकता होती है। इनमें आए लेखों का संपादन लेख या पुस्तक के समान होता है। विवादग्रस्त विषयों पर विभिन्न पक्षों से प्राप्त लेखों का इस प्रकार परीक्षण कर लिया जाता है कि उनमें न तो किसी भी प्रकार किसी व्यक्ति, समुदाय, समाज अथवा ग्रंथ पर किसी प्रकार का व्यंग्यात्मक का आक्रोशपूर्ण आक्षेप हो और न कहीं अपशब्दों या अश्लील (अमंगल, ब्रीडाजनक तथा ग्राम्य) शब्दों का प्रयोग हो। ऐसे पत्रों में विभिन्न शैलियों में आकर्षक रचनाकौशलों के साथ लिखे हुए पठनीय, मननीय, मनोरंजक, ज्ञानविस्तारक, विचारोत्तेजक और प्रेरणाशील लेखों का संग्रह करना, उसके साथ आवश्यक संपादकीय टिप्पणी देना, स्पष्टीकरण के लिए पादटिप्पणी, परिचय अथवा व्याख्या आदि जोड़ना और आए हुए लेखों को बोधगम्य तथा स्पष्ट करने के लिए अनावश्यक अंश निकाल देना, आवश्यक अंश जोड़ना, आदि से अंत तक शैली के निर्वाह के लिए भाषा ठीक करना, जिस विशेष कौशल से लेखक ने लिखा हो उस कौशल की प्रकृति के अनुसार भाषा और शैली को व्यवस्थित करना, यदि लेखक ने उचित कौशल का प्रयोग न किया हो तो उचित कौशल के अनुसार लेख को बदल देना, भाषा में प्रयुक्त किए हुए शब्दों और वाक्यों का रूप शुद्ध करना या लेख का प्रभाव बनाए रखने अथवा उसे अधिक प्रभावशील बनाने के लिए शब्दों और वाक्यों का संयोजन करना आदि क्रियाएँ संपादन के अंतर्गत आती हैं।
कविता या काव्य के संपादन में छंद, यति, गति, प्रभाव, मात्रा, शब्दों के उचित योजना, अलंकारों का उचित और प्रभावकारी योग, भाव के अनुसार शब्दों का संयोजन, प्रभाव तथा शैली का निर्वाह, तथा रूढ़ोक्तियों के उचित प्रयोग आदि बातों का विशेष ध्यान रखा जाता है। तात्पर्य यह है कि संपादन के द्वारा किसी भी लेख, पुस्तक या पत्र की सामग्री को उचित अनुपात, रूप, शैली और भाषा में इस प्रकार ढाल दिया जाता है कि वह जिस प्रकार के पाठकों के लिए उद्दिष्ट हो उन्हें वह प्रभावित कर सके, उनकी समझ में आ सके और उनके भावों, विचारों तथा भाषाबोध को परिमार्जित, सशक्त, प्रेरित और प्रबुद्ध कर सके तथा लेखकों का भी पथप्रदर्शन कर सके।
इन्हें भी देखें८व्ध सैस्च्व्द्च्द बेचौसे इ वन्त तो लिवे फोरेवेर्
- American Copy Editors Society
- "Black day for the blue pencil"- The Guardian, August 6, 2005 by Blake Morrison
- Editorial Freelancers Association (USA)
- Society for Editors and Proofreaders (UK)
- Technical Editing special interest group (SIG) of the Society for Technical Communication (STC)
- Writer Beware of Independent Editors and Manuscript Assessment Services
In the US and Canada, an editor who does this work is called a copy editor. An organisation's highest-ranking copy editor, or the supervising editor of a group of copy editors, may be known as the copy chief, copy desk chief, or news editor. In book publishing in the United Kingdom and other parts of the world that follow British nomenclature, the term copy editor is used, but in newspaper and magazine publishing, the term is sub-editor (or the unhyphenated subeditor), commonly shortened to sub. The senior sub-editor on a title is frequently called the chief sub-editor. As the "sub" prefix suggests, copy editors typically have less authority than regular editors.
The term copy editor may also be spelled as one word or in hyphenated form (copyeditor and copy-editor). The hyphenated form is especially common in the UK; in the U.S. newspaper field, use of the two-word form is more common.
- 1 Overview
- 2 Changes in the field
- 3 Traits, skills, and training
- 4 See also
- 5 Notes
- 6 References
- 7 External links
OverviewThe "five Cs" summarize the copy editor's job, which is to make the copy "clear, correct, concise, comprehensible, and consistent." According to one guide, copy editors should "make it say what it means, and mean what it says". Typically, copy editing involves correcting spelling, punctuation, grammar, terminology, jargon, and semantics, and ensuring that the text adheres to the publisher's style or an external style guide, such as the Chicago Manual of Style or the Associated Press Stylebook. Copy editors may shorten the text, to improve it or to fit length limits. This is particularly so in periodical publishing, where copy must be cut to fit a particular layout, and the text changed to ensure there are no "short lines".
Often, copy editors are also responsible for adding any "display copy", such as headlines, standardized headers and footers, pullquotes, and photo captions. And, although proofreading is a distinct task from copy editing, frequently it is one of the tasks performed by copy editors.
Copy editors are expected to ensure that the text flows, that it is sensible, fair, and accurate, and that any legal problems have been addressed. If a passage is unclear or an assertion seems questionable, the copy editor may ask the writer to clarify it. Sometimes, the copy editor is the only person, other than the writer, to read an entire text before publication and, for this reason, newspaper copy editors are considered the publication's last line of defense.
The role of the copy editor varies considerably from one publication to another. Some newspaper copy editors select stories from wire service copy; others use desktop publishing software to do design and layout work that once was the province of design and production specialists.
In the setting of academic publishing, scholarly journals also employ copy editors to prepare manuscripts for publication. To distinguish themselves from copy editors working in journalism, these editors sometimes refer to themselves as manuscript editors.
Changes in the field
The nearly universal adoption of computerised systems for editing and layout in newspapers and magazines has also led copy editors to become more involved in design and the technicalities of production. Technical knowledge is therefore sometimes considered as important as writing ability, though this is more true in journalism than it is in book publishing. Hank Glamann, co-founder of the American Copy Editors Society, made the following observation about ads for copy editor positions at American newspapers:
We want them to be skilled grammarians and wordsmiths and write bright and engaging headlines and must know Quark. But, often, when push comes to shove, we will let every single one of those requirements slide except the last one, because you have to know that in order to push the button at the appointed time.
Traits, skills, and trainingBesides an excellent command of language, copy editors need broad general knowledge for spotting factual errors; good critical thinking skills in order to recognize inconsistencies or vagueness; interpersonal skills for dealing with writers, other editors and designers; attention to detail; and a sense of style. Also, they must establish priorities and balance a desire for perfection with the necessity to follow deadlines.
Many copy editors have a college degree, often in journalism, the language the text is written in, or communications. In the United States, copy editing is often taught as a college journalism course, though its name varies. The courses often include news design and pagination.
In the United States, The Dow Jones Newspaper Fund sponsors internships that include two weeks of training. Also, the American Press Institute, the Poynter Institute, the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, UC San Diego Extension and conferences of the American Copy Editors Society offer mid-career training for newspaper copy editors and news editors (news copy desk supervisors).
Most U.S. newspapers and publishers give copy-editing job candidates an editing test or a tryout. These vary widely and can include general items such as acronyms, current events, math, punctuation, and skills such as the use of Associated Press style, headline writing, infographics editing, and journalism ethics.
In both the U.S. and the U.K., there are no official bodies offering a single recognized qualification.
In the U.K., several companies provide a range of courses unofficially recognised within the industry. Training may be on the job or through publishing courses, privately run seminars, or correspondence courses of the Society for Editors and Proofreaders. The National Council for the Training of Journalists also has a qualification for subeditors.
- American copy editors
- American Copy Editors Society
- AP Stylebook
- Fact checker
- House style
- News design
- Photo caption
- Robinson Prize
- The Art of Editing, by Floyd K. Baskette, Jack Z. Sissors, and Brian S. Brooks.
- Butcher, Judith; Drake, Caroline; Leach, Maureen (2006). Butcher's Copy-editing: The Cambridge Handbook for Editors, Copy-editors and Proofreaders (4 ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-84713-1. Retrieved 18 September 2012.
Look up copy editing in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
- Proofreading practice at Project Gutenberg Distributed Proofreaders
- What exactly is a copy editor?, by Bill Walsh of The Washington Post
- How a copy desk works