Sardar Patel University
Vallabh Vidyanagar; 388 120
(Based on UGC Model Curriculum) In force from 2010-11 Onward Introduction MA in Communication and Media Studies is designed to (a) strike a balance between theory and skills in imparting instructions in Mass Communication; (b) lay stress on convergence studies in Mass Communication and give proper representation to Print Media, Electronic Media, Advertising, Public Relations/Corporate Communication and Social Marketing; (c) ensure that the laboratory; theory instructions to be 50:50; and (d) work out a two-tier system for the course, in the ratio for internal tests and university examination as 50:50 for each of the 8 papers, with a total weighting of 100 marks per paper. The structure of which shall be as follows:
I Semester CMS-401 Principles of Mass Communication CMS-402 Development of Media CMS-403 Print Media-1 (Reporting and Editing) CMS-404 Electronic Media (Radio and Television) II Semester CMS-501 Development of Communication CMS-502 Communication Research CMS-503 Media Law and Ethics CMS-504 Media Management III Semester CMS-601 Print Media-2 CMS-602 Radio and Television CMS-603 Advertising and the World of Advertisement CMS-604 Public Relations and Corporate Communication IV Semester CMS-701 New Media Technology CMS-702 Intercultural Communication CMS-703 Research: A Mini-Research Project (10,000 Words)
CMS-704 Training: Attachment with a Media Organisation I Semester CMS-401 Principles of Mass Communication
1. Nature and process of human communication, functions of communication, verbal and nonverbal communication, intra-personal, inter-personal, small group, public and mass communication.
2. Models: SMR, SMCR, Shannon and Weaver, Lasswel, Osgood, Dance, Schramm, Gerbener, Newcomb, convergent and gate-keeping, communication and socialization.
3. Nature and process of mass communication, media of mass communication, characteristics and typology of audiences.
4. Media systems and theories: authoritarian, libertarian, socialistic, social-responsibility, development, participatory. Mass media: public opinion and democracy. Media culture and its production. Media organizations, media content, market; driven media content; effects, skyvasion, cultural integration and cultural pollution.
5. Issues of media monopoly; cross-media ownership; Ownership patterns of mass media, ethical aspects of mass media, freedom of speech and expression, right to information, media and social responsibility, media accountability, infotainment and ICE.
CMS-402 Development of Media
1. Language and society; development of language as a vehicle of communication; invention of printing press and paper; pioneer publications in Europe and USA. Early communication systems in India; development of printing; early efforts to publish newspapers in different parts of India.
2. Newspapers and magazines in the nineteenth century; first war of Indian Independence and the press; issues of freedom, both political freedom and press freedom.
3. Birth of the Indian language press; contribution of Raja Ram Mohun Roy; birth of the Indian news agencies. The Indian press and freedom movement; Mahatma Gandhi and his journalism; social, political and economic issues before Independence and the Indian press; historical development of important newspapers and magazines in English; important personalities of Indian journalism.
4. Journalism in Indian languages (a brief historical perspective of important newspapers to be selected by the concerned university); history of the language journalism of the region. The press in India after Independence; social, political and economic issues and the role of the Indian press problems and prospects. (Issues like backward class movement; Dalit movement; green revolution; agitation for and against reservation; nationalization; privatization; globalisation; WTO; land reforms; social issues of the region; political events; other relevant issues to be added by the concerned university).
5. Development of radio as a medium of mass communication; technology innovations; history of radio in India; radio as an instrument of propaganda during the World War II. Emergence of AIR; commercial broadcasting; FM radio; state and private initiatives.
6. Development of television as a medium of mass communication; historical perspective of television in India; satellite and cable television in India.
7. Early efforts; film as a mass medium; historical development of Indian films; silent era; talkies; Indian cinema after Independence; parallel cinema; commercial cinema; documentaries; issues and problems of Indian cinema.
8. Traditional media in India; regional diversity; content; form; character; utility; evaluation; future.
9. Development of new media; convergence; internet; on line.
CMS-403 Print Media-1 (Reporting and Editing)
1. Reporting News: definition, concept, elements, values, sources, lead writing, kinds, reporting crime, weather, city life, speech, accident, disaster, court, election, riots, war/conflict/tensions.
2. Interviewing; kinds, purposes, technique. Interpretative reporting; purposes, techniques. Investigative reporting; purposes, sources, styles, techniques.
3. Columns; development, criticism, reviews, feature writing, news analysis, backgrounding.
4. Political reporting; Legislative reporting; Diplomatic reporting; Scoops and exclusives and specialized reporting; science, sports, economic, development, commerce, gender, and allied areas reporting for magazines
5. Meaning, purposes, symbols, tools, lead, body, paragraphing.
6. Proof reading, meaning, symbols, purposes;
7. News desk, editorial department set-up, news flow, copy management and organization;
8. Headlines; techniques, styles, purposes, kinds of headlines.
9. Dummy page-make-up, layout, principles of photo editing; and Magazine editing, layout, graphics.
CMS-404 Electronic Media (Radio and Television)
1. Evolution and growth of electronic media: radio, television and internet.
2. Characteristics of radio, television and Internet as medium of communication; spoken, visual and multiple versions of information through links.
3. Principles and techniques of audio-visual communication; thinking audio and pictures, grammar of sound, visuals and web production.
4. Technology and skills of linear and non-linear systems of audio- visual communication; sound construction and picture formation through a wide range of microphones, sound-recorders, camcorders, video recorders, computer-graphics and studio equipment (exposure through field visits).
5. Transmission of sound, images and data through microwave, satellite, cable and television technologies.
6. Infrastructure, content and flows on internet, with specific reference to India; reach and access to personal computers and internet connectivity.
7. Newspaper, magazine, radio, television, and on internet.
II Semester CMS-501 Development of Communication
1. Development: meaning, concept, process and models of development; theories; origin; approaches to development, problems and issues in development, characteristics of developing societies, development dichotomies, gap between developed and developing societies.
2. Development communication: meaning; concept; definition; philosophy; process theories; role of media in development communication - strategies in development communication - social cultural and economic barriers - case studies and experience; development communication policy; strategies and action plans; democratic decentralization, Panchayati Raj - planning at national, state, regional, district, block and village levels.
3. Agricultural communication and rural development: The genesis of agricultural extension, extension approach system; approach in agricultural communication; diffusion of innovation; model of agricultural extension; case studies of communication support to agriculture.
4. Development support communication: population and family welfare; health; education and society; environment and development - problems faced in development support communication.
5. Developmental and rural extension agencies: governmental, semi-government, nongovernmental organizations problems faced in effective communication, micro; macro; economic frame work available for actual developmental activities; case studies on development communication programmes.
6. Writing development messages for rural audience: specific requirements of media writing with special reference to radio and television.
CMS-502 Communication Research
1. Definition; elements of research; scientific approach; research and communication theories; role; function; scope and importance of communication research; basic and applied research.
2. Research design components; experimental, quasi-experimental, bench mark, longitudinal studies; simulation; panel studies; correlational designs.
3. Methods of communication research; census method, survey method, observation method; clinical studies; case studies; content analysis.
4. Tools of data collection: sources, media source books, questionnaire and schedules, people’s meter, diary method, field studies, logistic groups, focus groups, telephone, surveys, online polls. Random sampling methods and representativeness of the samples, sampling errors and distributions in the findings.
5. Media research; evaluation, feedback; feed forward; media habits; public opinion surveys; pre-election studies and exit polls.
6. Report writing; data analysis techniques; coding and tabulation; non-statistical methods; descriptive; historical; statistical analysis; parametric and non-parametric; uni-variate; bi-variate; multi-variate; tests of significance; levels of measurement; central tendency; tests of reliability and validity; SPSS and other statistical packages.
7. Media research as a tool of reporting. Readership and/audience surveys, preparation of research reports/project reports/dissertations/theses. Ethical perspectives of mass media research.
CMS-503 Media Law and Ethics Media Law
1. Constitution of India: fundamental rights; freedom of speech and expression and their limits; directive principles of state policy, provisions of declaring emergency and their effects on media; provisions for amending the constitution; provisions for legislature reporting; parliamentary privileges and media; theory of basic structure; union and states; and election commission and its machinery.
2. Specified press laws: history of press laws in India; Contempt of Courts Act 1971; civil and criminal law of defamation; relevant provisions of Indian Penal Code with reference of sedition, crime against women and children; laws dealing with obscenity; Official Secrets Act, 1923, vis-à-vis Right to information; Press and Registration of Books Act, 1867.
3. Working Journalists and Other Newspaper Employees (Conditions of Service & Miscellaneous Provisions ) Act, 1955;; Cinematograph Act, 1953; Prasar Bharati Act; WTO agreement and intellectual property right legislations, including Copyright Act, Trade Marks Act and Patent Act; information technology, convergence legislations including cyber laws and Cable Television Act; and media and public interest litigation.
4. Media’s ethical problems including privacy, right to reply, communal writing and sensational and yellow journalism; freebies, bias, coloured reports; ethical issues related with ownership of media; role of press and/or media councils and press ombudsmen in the world; Press Council of India and its broad guidelines for the press; codes suggested for the press by Press Council and Press Commissions and other national and international organizations; and codes for radio, television, advertising and public relations.
5. Accountability and independence of media.
CMS-504 Media Management
1. Principles of media management and their significance; media as an industry and profession.
2. Ownership patterns of mass-media in India; sole proprietorship, partnership, private limited companies, public limited companies, trusts, co-operatives, religious institutions (societies) and franchisees (chains).
3. Policy formulation; planning and control; problems, process and prospects of launching media ventures. Organisation theory, delegation, decentralization, motivation, control and co-ordination.
4. Hierarchy, functions and organisational structure of different departments; general management, finance, circulation (sales promotion; including pricing and price; war aspect); advertising (marketing), personnel management, production and reference sections; apex bodies: DAVP, INS and ABC. Changing roles of editiorial staff and other media persons. Editorial; Response system.
5. Economics of print and electronic media; management, business, legal and financial aspects of media management. Budgeting and finance, capital costs, production costs, commercial polity, advertising and sales strategy, completion and survival, evolving a strategy and plan of action, operations, production schedule and process, evaluation, budget control, costing, tax, labour laws and PR for building and sustaining business and audience.
6. Planning and execution of programme production; production terms, control practices and procedures. Administration and programme management in media; scheduling, transmitting, record keeping, quality control and cost effective techniques. Employee / employer and customer relations services; marketing strategies; brand promotion (space/time, circulation); reach; promotion; market survey techniques -human research development for media.
7. Foreign equity in Indian media (including print media) and Press Commissions on Indian newspaper management structure.
III Semester CMS-601 Print Media-2 (Practicals) Reporting
1. This segment will mainly consist of practicals in various areas of reporting enumerated in the first semester. At least five assignments mentioned in the first semester shall be given to the students on each topic. All topics, including feature writing, interviewing, assignments on investigative, sports, commerce, reviewing, marketing, court legislative and other allied areas of reporting, will also be evaluated by internal/external faculty.
2. Similarly, not less than five assignments in each area of editing will have to be completed by the students, and assessed by internal/external faculty. They will also have to bring out practice journals, mini/lab newspapers and magazines and do page make-up and lay-out exercises.
Assignments will also be given and assessed in news selection, subbing, editorial and article writing.
CMS-602 Radio and Television Radio
1. Radio programme production process and techniques, thinking audio; aspects of sound recording; types of microphones and their uses; field recording skills; radio feature production; radio documentary production; studio chain; live studio broadcast with multiple sources; news production.
2. Using sound bytes and actualities; spacebridge with field sources of news; studio production of radio newsreel and current affairs programmes; formats of radio programmes; studio interviews; studio discussions; phone-in programmes; O.B. production of sporting and mega events.
Writing for radio
3. Spoken language writing; writing for programmes; writing for radio commercials; illustrating copy with sound effects; news writing; structuring radio-copy; editing agency copy, reporter’s copy; compiling radio news programmes; writing intro to bytes; writing headlines, teasers and promos.
4. Field reporting, reporting specialized areas, investigative reporting; voice dispatches; interview techniques; presentation; structuring a radio report; news capsuling and radio commentary.
5. Voice training - effective use of voice; enunication, flow, pronunciation, modulation; on-line interview techniques; moderating skills for radio discussion programmes; handling interactive live transmission.
6. Visual communication; communicating with still pictures and video; shooting with TV camera; camera mounting; colour balance, basic shots and camera movement; basics of TV Production: TV lighting in field, using reflectors. Lighting grid; luminaries.
7. Studio lighting; three-point lighting; high key and low key lighting; properties, studio sets ands make-up; video editing techniques; cut , mix and dissolve use of cutaway; AB roll editing; digital effects and post production; planning location shoots; story board; single camera shooting; multi camera shooting; shooting and editing schedules; studio production; role of functionaries; planning studio programmes; cue’s and commands; formats of TV programmes; studio interview; studio discussion - studio chat shows with audience participation; studio quiz program with audience participation; TV documentary production; corporate video production
Writing and Reporting for television
8. Writing to still, writing for video, reference visuals to words. TV news writing; marking copy in production language. Writing for television programmes; research, visualization and production script.
9. Visualising news/ENG; research, investigation; interview techniques; piece to camera and voice over; sequencing and editing news packages; investigative reporting; economic reporting; sports reporting - human interest stories.
Television News Editing and Anchoring
10. Planning, production and compilation of news programmes - writing lead-in/intro to news packages; headlines writing, teasers and promos.
11. Voice broadcast skills; enunciation, flow, modulation - facing a camera; eye contact - use of teleprompter; live studio and field interviews - moderating TV studio discussions; anchoring chat shows and cross-fire.
CMS-603 Advertising and the World of Advertisement Basics of Advertising
1. Evolution and growth of advertising; definitions of advertising; relevance of advertising in the marketing mix; classification of advertising; various media for advertising; national and global advertising scene; socio-economic effects of advertising.
2. Ad agency management, various specialist departments in an ad agency: (account planning, account servicing, creative, media planning, HRD, etc.)
3. Client related issues and the process, business development, pitching for accounts; agency-client interface: the parameters - creative and media briefing process, agency-media interface, agency revenue earning and sources, agency audit.
4. Mass media laws concerning advertising; apex bodies in advertising AAAI, ASCI etc.), ASCI and its code of conduct, case studies from ASCI.
5. Advertising tools and practice; consumer behaviour: analysis, definitions and factors; defining consumer behaviour and its various factors; external environment, culture, sub-culture, social class, social group, family, internal states-perception, learning, motivation, personality, lifestyle and attitudes, etc.).
6. Consumer in economic theories, models of consumer behaviour; Brand management: definition, concepts and evolution of brand management - component of a brand: strategy and structure - brand equity, image and personality - corporate brand.
7. Defining creativity, stages in the creative process, creative brief, advertising appeals, language copy - debriefing of campaigns; Process of motivation and theories of motivation. Graphics: role and scope in advertising, design principles, use of colour in design, designs in colours; type and type faces. Media characteristics–defining media planning, media scene in India, sources of media information, media strategies, budgeting and presentation to client, media scheduling, reach and frequency, media weight theories, media buying and analyzing media information on-line.
8. Scope and objectives; research as a decision making tool. Market research and advertising research; types of research: target marketing research, positioning research; pre-test research,
post test research, audience research, methods of analyzing research (psychographic/life style research, psycho-physiological research)
CMS-604 Public Relations and Corporate Communication (CC) Strategic Public Relations/CC and Management
1. Evolution and history of public relations; definitions of PR, PR and allied disciplines (publicity, propaganda, public affairs, lobbying, etc.).
2. Symmetrical and asymmetrical theories of PR - law and ethics of PR (defamation, copyright, invasion of privacy; PRSI code of ethics).
3. Interface of PR with various management disciplines (human resource development, finance, marketing, law, etc.); public in PR, PR tools (interpersonal, mass media and selective media); PR in industry (public sector, private sector and multinational); PR in central and state governments and the functioning of various media units of the state and Union governments.
4. Defining strategy and its relevance in public relations and corporate communication; campaign planning, management and execution; role of PR/CC in crisis communication and disaster management.
5. Defining stakeholders and media selection; study of symmetrical and asymmertrical models in handling crises.
6. Building a distinct corporate identity: concepts, variables and process; making of house styles (logo, lettering and process)
7. Writing for public relations: internal public (house journals, bulletin boards, open houses, suggestion boxes, video magazines, etc.).
8. Writing for media (press release/backgrounder, press brief, rejoinders, etc)
9. Organizing press conferences, facility visits, press briefs; proactive and reactive media relations; ethical aspects in media relations; role of technology in PR/CC.
IV Semester CMS-701 New Media Technology Theory Communication Technology (CT)
1. Concept, Nature and Scope
CT and IT
2. Similarities and differences; telephony; electronic digital exchange, C-Dot, Pagers, Cellular Telephone.
3. Internet: LAN, MAN, WAN, E-mail, Web; Ownership and administration of Internet, ISPs, WAP; Types of Internet connections: Dial-up, ISDN, lease-line.
4. Optical fibre: structure, advantage and application; protocols of Internet: SLIP, CSLIP, TCP/ IP, PPP
WEB PAGE, Websites, Homepages
5. Introduction to HTTP, HTML, ELP, DNS, JAVA; browsing and browsers, bookmarks, searching: through directory search engine, search resources; video conferencing and telephony, e-commerce: m-commerce, buying, selling, banking, advertising on Internet.
6. Web page development, inserting, linking; editing, publishing, localing, promoting and maintaining a website
7. On-line editions of newspapers-management and economics; cyber newspapers-creation, feed, marketing, revenue and expenditure, Online editing, e-publishing; security issues on Internet; social, political, legal and ethical issues related IT and CT.
(a) Searching and downloading of information;
(b) Establishing e-mail address;
(c) Accessing, (receiving) sending and replying e-mail;
(d) Sending and forwarding e-mail to multiple recipients;
(e) Chatting over Internet;
(f) Networking with special interest groups;
(g) Designing home pages;
(h) Creating electronic newspapers;
(i) Creating Internet ads, and
(j) Establishing and analysing hits and eyeballs.
CMS-702 Intercultural Communication
1. Culture; definition; process; culture as a social institution; value systems; primary; secondary; eastern and western perspectives.
2. Inter-cultural communication; definition; process; philosophical and functional dimensions; cultural symbols in verbal and non-verbal communication.
3. Perception of the world; Western and Greek (Christian); varied eastern concepts (Hindu, Islamic, Buddhist, others); retention of information; comparison between eastern and western concepts.
4. Communication as a concept in western and eastern cultures (Dwaitha; Adwaitha; Vishishtadwaitha; Chinese (DaoTsu and Confucius; Shinto Buddhism) and also Sufism.
5. Language and grammar as a medium of cultural communication; Panini/Patanjali; Prabhakara Mandanamisra; Chomsky; Thoreau and others; linguistic aspects of inter-cultural communication.
6. Modern mass media as vehicles of inter-cultural communication; barriers in inter-cultural communication; religious, political and economic pressures; inter-cultural conflicts and communication; impact of new technology on culture; globalization effects on culture and communication; mass media as a culture manufacturing industry; mass media as a cultural institution; mass culture typologies; criticism and justification.
7. Culture, communication and folk media; character, content and functions; dance and music as instruments of inter-cultural communication; UNESCO’s efforts in the promotion of intercultural communication; other organizations; code of ethics.
CMS-703 Individual Research Project Every student shall complete a Mini-Research Project and submit a Project Report of 8,000 words approximately on any area of mass communication detailed in the curriculum under the guidance of regular/guest faculty. The objective of the Project Report is to enable a student to have an in-depth knowledge of the subject of his/her choice. It shall be a research-based effort and shall endeavour to create new knowledge in any area of mass communication. A cut-and-paste job shall not be acceptable as a Project Report. CMS-704 Training: Attachment with a Media Organisation Each student shall have to undergo a four-week or more attachment in any of the media such as newspapers, magazines, radio, television, agencies of advertising and public relations/corporate communication, or any other identified by the students and faculty jointly/individually, facilities for which are easily available locally or regionally.
Important Books for Reference
1. Research, Reference and Training Division, Min. of Information & Broadcasting, Mass Media- 2000. Publications Division, Government of India, New Delhi. Paperback edition.
2. Research, Reference and Training Division, Min. of Information & Broadcasting, Mass Media in India 1994-95. Publications Division, Government of India, New Delhi. Paperback edition.
3. UL Baruah, This is All India Radio. Publications Division, Government of India, New Delhi. Paperback edition.
4. PN Malhan, Communication Media: Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow. Publications Division, Government of India, New Delhi. Paperback edition.
5. SC Bhatt, Indian Press Since 1955. Publications Division, Government of India, New Delhi. Paperback edition.
6. Indian Institute of Mass Communication, News Agencies Pool of Non-aligned Countries – A Perspective. Publications Division, Government of India, New Delhi. Paperback edition.
7. DD Basu (2002), Law of the Press in India. Department of Law, Government of Kerala, Thiruananthapuram.
8. MV Kamath (1996), Professional Journalism, New Delhi: Vikas Publishing House (P) Ltd, New Delhi.
9. MV Kamath (1995), The Journalist's Handbook. Vikas Publishing House (P) Ltd., New Delhi.
10. J Natrajan. The Press in India Until 1954. New Delhi: Publication Division of Government of India.
11. J Natrajan. History of the Press in India. New Delhi: Publication Division of Government of India.
Teaching and instruction will involve the use of lecture-cum-work-shop mode all the time. The focus in teaching and instruction will be learner-oriented and every effort will be made to maximise student-teacher interaction. Thus, learners will be expected to be partners in classroom explorations. Tutorials, quizzes, and assignment will be used for the purpose of evaluation and feedback on a continuous basis. Individual seminar presentations and Project Presentations will form an integral part of the course requirement, and so will a lot of intelligent processing of texts and reading materials. Evaluation Learners will be assessed and evaluated throughout the each of the 4 semesters on a continuous basis. The weighting of the total coursework required shall be 100 marks. 50 marks shall be set aside for internal evaluation and 50 marks for the University Examination per paper at the end of each semester. Internal Evaluation will be based on classroom participation, one internal test of 50 marks per semester, 5 of the best of the total number of tutorials, quizzes, practical work, assignments, an individual seminar presentation, and individual project/s. The ratio between theory and practicals in the internal evaluation shall be 50:50 out of a total of 50 marks. University Examination would comprise of questions of the total weighting of 50 marks, having internal options covering each of the six modules, and carry a weighting of 14 marks per question. Questions may be either essay-type or objective-type in nature. The tilt in the essay-type will be more toward practical application of a given theory. There shall be no practicals in the University Examination.