शुक्रवार, 24 अक्तूबर 2014

History of Newspapers



  

प्रस्तुति-- समिधा, राहुल मानव, राकेश 

 Presentation Transcript

  • 1. History of Newspapers!!
  • 2. A Brief History of Newspapers The newspaper as we know it today is a product borne of necessity, invention, the middle class, democracy, free enterprise, and professional standards. The first news sheet? The first newspaper? The first daily newspaper?
  • 3. A Brief History of Newspapers Pre-history "newspapers" were one-to-one in nature. The earliest variation on a newspaper was a daily sheet published in 59 BC in Rome called Acta Diurna (Daily Events), which Julius Caesar ordered posted throughout the city. These were daily Roman Official Notices. They were carved on stone or Metal and presented on message boards in Public places like the Forum of Rome. The earliest known printed newspaper was in Beijing in 748.
  • 4. A Brief History of Newspapers In 1451, Johannes Gütenberg used a press to print an old German poem, and two years later printed a 42-line Bible over a total of 1282 pages, the significance being the mass production of print products, ushering in an era of newspapers, magazines and books. 1457: First color printing by Fust and Schoeffer.
  • 5. A Brief History of Newspapers By 1500, the genesis of a postal system was to be seen in France, while book publishing became popular throughout Europe and the first paper mill came to be founded in England. Zeitung (newspaper) was a news report published in Germany in 1502, while Trewe Encountre became the earliest known English- language news sheet in 1513. 1556: First monthly newspaper Notizie Scritte published in Venice.
  • 6. A Brief History of Newspapers 1605: First printed newspaper published weekly in Antwerp called Relation. Germany's Avisa Relation oder Zeitung, in 1609, was the first regularly published newspaper in Europe.
  • 7. A Brief History of Newspapers It is an estimate that approximately 40 years after the first newspaper in England, the Oxford Gazette was published, utilising double columns for the first time; the Oxford/London Gazette was considered the first true newspaper. The first North American newspaper, Publick Occurrences Both Foreign and Domestick, was published in 1690 in Boston.
  • 8. A Brief History of Newspapers The 1700s was a century in which market elements were created that encouraged the development of daily newspapers: the formation of nation-states, a developing postal system, the proliferation of urban centers, a rising literary and philosophical tradition emphasising democratic involvement in government, and technologies that supported newspaper production.
  • 9. A Brief History of Newspapers It was a great news century. The first daily newspaper was The Daily Courant in London, 1702. 1704: Daniel Defoe best known for his novels, Robinson Crusoe and Moll Flanders is considered the world‟s first journalist, he published the Review. In 1754, The Daily Advertiser in London used the first four-column format.
  • 10. A Brief History of Newspapers In 1751, John Bushell‟s Halifax became the first Canadian Newspaper. The Journal de Paris was France's first daily newspaper which appeared in 1777.
  • 11. A Brief History of Newspapers On June 10, 1780, the Pennsylvania Packet became the first United States daily. In 1814, the Times of London acquired a Printing Press capable of Printing 1100 impressions per minute. This and the capability to print on both side of paper was responsible for making newspapers cheaper and more openly available to the Public.
  • 12. A Brief History of Newspapers The rise of the middle class transformed newspapers in the 1800s. A penny bought a New York newspaper in 1833, opening up the first mass market for newspapers. In 1847, the telegraph was used as a business tool, transforming far-away stories. In the 1880 the first photographs were seen in newspapers, using halftones.
  • 13. A Brief History of Newspapers 1850: P.T. Barnum starts running newspaper ads for Jenny Lind, the "Swedish Nightingale" performances in America. In 1873, an illustrated daily newspaper was to be seen in New York.
  • 14. A Brief History of Newspapers In 1879 a full-page newspaper advertisement was run by an American Departmental Store – “John Wanamaker”. Wanamaker used a great deal of advertising to gain customers. He ran ads and columns in newspapers, advertising not only the goods he had for sale, but what could be done with these goods and telling stories about where they came from.
  • 15. A Brief History of Newspapers In the 1800s , primarily as a result of the Industrial Revolution, a vast culture of consumption emerged. This was fueled by advertising and an abundance of commodities established its foundations. This was the birth of Advertising.
  • 16. A Brief History of Newspapers
  • 17. A Brief History of Newspapers
  • 18. A Brief History of Newspapers The story also involved an evolving business model that rode an ever-growing wave of mass-market advertising. Increased profitability and higher revenues attracted publicly owned corporations interested in buying newspapers from descendants of company founders, while simultaneously exposing newspapers to the whims of cash- and profit-hungry stock markets.
  • 19. Since 1838 With the basic technical groundwork for the modern newspaper in place by the late 19th century, the story of newspapers in the 20th century was about professional development and adaptation to changing consumer and media markets.
  • 20. A Brief History of Newspapers By 2000, newspapers were juggling priorities: Fragmentation of news consumption, Fragmentation of advertising investments, The advantages and disadvantages of being a mass medium, balancing the wants of the marketplace with the company's duty to provide the needs of the marketplace,
  • 21. A Brief History of Newspapers By 2000, newspapers were juggling priorities: a journalistic backlash against industry changes, the sheer physicality of ink-on-paper production and distribution versus digital distribution, increasing profit pressure surrounding the core print product, and extension of the company's core brand into other profit centers.
  • 22. A Historical Perspective
  • 23. Since 1838 • 1834 – East India Co. lost its monopoly when its Trade Charter was abolished. Mumbai, when Cotton was King and the Chamber of Commerce ruled Supreme • 1836 - Bombay Chamber of Commerce founded, Bank of Bombay set up and a steamship service started. This marked a shift in importance for Mumbai Harbour view around 1880, at Calcutta as a trading hub the spot where there is a pavalion – today we have the Gateway of India towards Bombay.
  • 24. Since 1838 • Recognizing that Mercantile was vital to the powering of the Trade engine, a British syndicate Sir Jamsetjee Jeejeebhoy Ballard Estate &20 Century. at the start of the Ballard Pier th of 11 firms, 2 barristers and a Doctor founded the Bombay Times & Journal of Commerce. There was also a native merchant Prince – Jamsetjee Jeejeebhoy. In its First Avatar, The Times of India was the Bombay Times & The First Editor of the Newspaper and also the Journal if Commerce. Most of its News was Shipping Secretary of the Bombay Chamber of Commerce Intelligence was Dr.J.E.Brennan.
  • 25. Since 1838 • The newspaper experienced proprietary changes in 1846. Under Editor Dr.George Buist the paper was amalgamated with Bombay Standard and turned into a „Daily‟ Bombay Times & Standard. • 1850 was also the year in which the shareholders decided to increase the share capital of the company to turn it into a daily.
  • 26. Since 1838 • 1855 - Telegraph Services opens up in India shortly afterwards, the paper signs an agreement with Reuters for raising news coverage and lowering subscription rates. • 1861 – Under Editor Robert Knight, the Newspaper was re-christened as „The Times Of India‟ (an amalgamation of „Bombay Times‟, „Bombay Standard‟ and „Bombay Telegraph and Courier.
  • 27. Since 1838 • By this time Bombay had become the commercial capital of India and The Times of India began to be recognized as a National Newspaper, circulation now not being confined only to Bombay. • 1880 – The Times of India Weekly Edition launched, to meet the need for a weekend newspaper. This later came to be known as The Illustrated Weekly of India.
  • 28. Nostalgia The first issue of The Times of India Weekly edition on January 3, 1880 created waves in Indian journalism. It was first merely a concentrate of the week's news and leading articles. But it wasn't long before of it broke free of this modest format. The Illustrated Weekly of India as It finally came to be reincarnated in 1929, had many illustrious editors . The Weekly ceased on November 13, 1993.
  • 29. Since 1838 • 1890 – Editor Henry Curwen bought The Times of India in partnership with Charles Kane. • 1892 – T.J.Bennett – Editor of The Times of India becomes the Sole Proprietor of the Newspaper and invited F.W.Coleman, a Master Printer with experience in Newspaper Production to enter into a partnership.
  • 30. Since 1838 • This was the formation of “Bennett, Coleman & Co.Ltd.” By 1907 The Times of India had become an Opinion forming Instrument. • 1907 –Under the Editorship of Sir Stanley Reed the first form of Price Cuts came into being – Price cut from 4 annas to 1 anna. He was one of the longest serving Editors from 1907-1923. • He also revolutionised news production by extending the deadline to midnight. Until then any news that came in after 5pm was held over for the next day.
  • 31. Since 1838 In 1951, during the Indian National Congress‟s 57th Special Annual Session at Satyawati Nagar, New Delhi, The Times of India was present with a small stall showcasing the Newspaper
  • 32. Since 1838 Churchgate around 1860. The arched structure stood where Flora Fountain now occupies pride of place. This was the area in which we moved from Parsi Bazaar.
  • 33. Since 1838 The Times of India building when the office shifted in 1902 to its present locations, on what is now Dadabhoy Naoroji Road, Mumbai 1913 – Formation of Joint Stock Company – BCCL In 1923 the newspaper came under Indian Ownership of Ramakrishna Dalmia.
  • 34. Since 1838 India's first evening newspaper was launched on November 5, 1923. After 64 eventful years this tabloid was discontinued on May15, 1987.
  • 35. Since 1838 In 1940 on new Year's day for the first time news appeared on the front page. Sir Francis Lowe was the editor.
  • 36. Since 1838 August 15, 1947, India awoke to Freedom, The Times of India to an enhanced role in the Country‟s development. 1948 - Sahu Jain Group became the Owners of the Company under Chairmanship of Shanti Prasad Jain.
  • 37. Since 1838 Bombay, a world within a city, needed a newspaper all to itself. When globalization was still the prerogative of colonialism, a newspaper was established to address precisely this demand. Started on October 21, 1994 it provided individualized attention to the unique needs of the megapolis. With it The Times of India becomes an even more complete newspaper. Bachi Karkaria as its first Editor.
  • 38. Since 1838 The Independent was positioned to serve the intellectual and the affluent community of the city. It promised to give a balanced view of both sides of the coin. Vinod Mehta was its first Editor. The Independent closed down on October 14, 1994
  • 39. Since 1838 The Independent On Saturday emerged in an even more energetic and innovative avatar, it became The Metropolis On Saturday from February 6,1993 as a weekend newspaper. Later it focused more sharply on the local needs of this metropolis retaining its position as the cutting edge of newspaper publishing right through its existence. This publication ceased on June 14, 1997.
  • 40. Since 1838 Jaideep Bose Girilal Jain 2004 1978 - 1988 Robert Knight TJ Bennett 1861 1892 Shyam Lal 1967-1978 W Martin Wood 1865 - 1874 Gautam Adhikari Sir Stanley Reed 1994 - 1997 1907 - 1923 Dileep Padgaonkar 1988 - 1993 Brig Ivor S Jehu 1948 - 1950 NJ Nanporia Shekhar Bhatia 1955 - 1967 1998 - 2004 Frank Moraes Francis Low 1950 - 1957 1932 - 1948
  • 41. Since 1838 Over the years we have invited eminent men & women from diverse fields to be the Guest Editor of our Publications form the day or just to write for our readers . Every one of our Guest Editors have taken their roles very seriously, they came prepared with not just ideas, but the nitty gritty of news management, they spent all the time that was required . HH Dalai Lama Winston Churchill Indira Gandhi Dr.Homi Bhabha JRD Tata Mahatma Gandhi Jimmy Carter Jawaharlal Nehru………
  • 42. Since 1838 The Evolution of our Mastheads
  • 43. Since 1838 • 1976 – Under the Leadership of Late Ashok Jain, Chairman, Bennett, Coleman & Co.Ltd., The Times Group became one of the Country‟s largest Media Groups and has now been around for over 170 years.

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