Audio editing software
प्रस्तुति-- रजनीश, पंकज प्रजापति, विनय यादव, कृष्णा यादव, गुड्डू यादव
Wave Editors are digital audio editors and there are many sources of software available to perform this function. Most can edit music, apply effects and filters, adjust stereo channels etc.. with waveform editing views and many are freeware programs without any limitations.
A digital audio workstation (DAW) can consist to a great part out of software. are usually software suites composed of many distinct software components, giving access to them through a unified graphical user interface using GTK+, Qt or some other library for the GUI widgets.
Audio data can be characterized as digitized audio signal, cf. digital audio.
For use with musicEditors designed for use with music typically allow the user to do the following:
- The ability to import and export various audio file formats for editing.
- Record audio from one or more inputs and store recordings in the computer's memory as digital audio
- Edit the start time, stop time, and duration of any sound on the audio timeline
- Fade into or out of a clip (e.g. an S-fade out during applause after a performance), or between clips (e.g. crossfading between takes)
- Mix multiple sound sources/tracks, combine them at various volume levels and pan from channel to channel to one or more output tracks
- Apply simple or advanced effects or filters, including compression, expansion, flanging, reverb, audio noise reduction and equalization to change the audio
- Playback sound (often after being mixed) that can be sent to one or more outputs, such as speakers, additional processors, or a recording medium
- Conversion between different audio file formats, or between different sound quality levels
For use with speechEditors designed for use in speech research add the ability to make measurements and perform acoustic analyses such as extracting and displaying a fundamental frequency contour or spectrogram. They typically lack most or all of the effects of interest to musicians.
- Audio signal processing
- Digital audio workstation
- Comparison of digital audio editors
- Music sequencer
- Software synthesizer
- Free audio software
- Software effect processor
The film editor works with the raw footage, selecting shots and combining them into sequences to create a finished motion picture. Film editing is described as an art or skill, the only art that is unique to cinema, separating filmmaking from other art forms that preceded it, although there are close parallels to the editing process in other art forms like poetry or novel writing. Film editing is often referred to as the "invisible art" because when it is well-practiced, the viewer can become so engaged that he or she is not even aware of the editor's work. On its most fundamental level, film editing is the art, technique, and practice of assembling shots into a coherent sequence. The job of an editor isn’t simply to mechanically put pieces of a film together, cut off film slates, or edit dialogue scenes. A film editor must creatively work with the layers of images, story, dialogue, music, pacing, as well as the actors' performances to effectively "re-imagine" and even rewrite the film to craft a cohesive whole. Editors usually play a dynamic role in the making of a film. Sometimes, auteur film directors edit their own films. Notable examples are Akira Kurosawa and the Coen brothers.
With the advent of digital editing, film editors and their assistants have become responsible for many areas of filmmaking that used to be the responsibility of others. For instance, in past years, picture editors dealt only with just that—picture. Sound, music, and (more recently) visual effects editors dealt with the practicalities of other aspects of the editing process, usually under the direction of the picture editor and director. However, digital systems have increasingly put these responsibilities on the picture editor. It is common, especially on lower budget films, for the assistant editors or even the editor to cut in music, mock up visual effects, and add sound effects or other sound replacements. These temporary elements are usually replaced with more refined final elements by the sound, music, and visual effects teams hired to complete the picture.
Film editing is an art that can be used in diverse ways. It can create sensually provocative montages; become a laboratory for experimental cinema; bring out the emotional truth in an actor's performance; create a point of view on otherwise obtuse events; guide the telling and pace of a story; create an illusion of danger where there is none; give emphasis to things that would not have otherwise been noted; and even create a vital subconscious emotional connection to the viewer, among many other possibilities.
- 1 History
- 2 Post-production
- 3 Continuity
- 4 Methods of montage
- 5 Continuity editing
- 6 Alternatives to continuity editing (non-traditional or experimental)
- 7 Editing techniques
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 External links
HistoryEarly films were short films that were one long, static, and locked-down shot. Motion in the shot was all that was necessary to amuse an audience, so the first films simply showed activity such as traffic moving on a city street. There was no story and no editing. Each film ran as long as there was film in the camera.
The use of film editing to establish continuity, involving action moving from one sequence into another, is attributed to British film pioneer Robert W. Paul's Come Along, Do!, made in 1898 and one of the first films to feature more than one shot. In the first shot, an elderly couple is outside an art exhibition having lunch and then follow other people inside through the door. The second shot shows what they do inside. Paul's 'Cinematograph Camera No. 1' of 1896 was the first camera to feature reverse-cranking, which allowed the same film footage to be exposed several times and thereby to create super-positions and multiple exposures. This technique was first used in his 1901 film Scrooge, or, Marley's Ghost.
The further development of action continuity in multi-shot films continued in 1899-1900 at the Brighton School in England, where it was definitively established by George Albert Smith and James Williamson. In that year Smith made Seen Through the Telescope, in which the main shot shows street scene with a young man tying the shoelace and then caressing the foot of his girlfriend, while an old man observes this through a telescope. There is then a cut to close shot of the hands on the girl's foot shown inside a black circular mask, and then a cut back to the continuation of the original scene.
James Williamson concentrated on making films taking action from one place shown in one shot to the next shown in another shot in films like Stop Thief! and Fire!, made in 1901, and many others. He also experimented with the close-up, and made perhaps the most extreme one of all in The Big Swallow, when his character approaches the camera and appears to swallow it. These two film makers of the Brighton School also pioneered the editing of the film; they tinted their work with color and used trick photography to enhance the narrative. By 1900, their films were extended scenes of up to 5 minutes long.
Other filmmakers then took up all these ideas including the American Edwin S. Porter, who started making films for the Edison Company in 1901. Porter worked on a number of minor films before making Life of an American Fireman in 1903. The film was the first American film with a plot, featuring action, and even a closeup of a hand pulling a fire alarm. The film comprised a continuous narrative over seven scenes, rendered in a total of nine shots. He put a dissolve between every shot, just as Georges Méliès was already doing, and he frequently had the same action repeated across the dissolves. His film, The Great Train Robbery (1903), had a running time of twelve minutes, with twenty separate shots and ten different indoor and outdoor locations. He used cross-cutting editing method to show simultaneous action in different places.
These early film directors discovered important aspects of motion picture language: that the screen image does not need to show a complete person from head to toe and that splicing together two shots creates in the viewer's mind a contextual relationship. These were the key discoveries that made all non-live or non live-on-videotape narrative motion pictures and television possible—that shots (in this case whole scenes since each shot is a complete scene) can be photographed at widely different locations over a period of time (hours, days or even months) and combined into a narrative whole. That is, The Great Train Robbery contains scenes shot on sets of a telegraph station, a railroad car interior, and a dance hall, with outdoor scenes at a railroad water tower, on the train itself, at a point along the track, and in the woods. But when the robbers leave the telegraph station interior (set) and emerge at the water tower, the audience believes they went immediately from one to the other. Or that when they climb on the train in one shot and enter the baggage car (a set) in the next, the audience believes they are on the same train.
Sometime around 1918, Russian director Lev Kuleshov did an experiment that proves this point. (See Kuleshov Experiment) He took an old film clip of a head shot of a noted Russian actor and intercut the shot with a shot of a bowl of soup, then with a child playing with a teddy bear, then with a shot an elderly woman in a casket. When he showed the film to people they praised the actor's acting—the hunger in his face when he saw the soup, the delight in the child, and the grief when looking at the dead woman. Of course, the shot of the actor was years before the other shots and he never "saw" any of the items. The simple act of juxtaposing the shots in a sequence made the relationship.
Film editing technologyBefore the widespread use of non-linear editing systems, the initial editing of all films was done with a positive copy of the film negative called a film workprint (cutting copy in UK) by physically cutting and pasting together pieces of film, using a splicer and threading the film on a machine with a viewer such as a Moviola, or "flatbed" machine such as a K.-E.-M. or Steenbeck. Today, most films are edited digitally (on systems such as Avid or Final Cut Pro) and bypass the film positive workprint altogether. In the past, the use of a film positive (not the original negative) allowed the editor to do as much experimenting as he or she wished, without the risk of damaging the original.
When the film workprint had been cut to a satisfactory state, it was then used to make an edit decision list (EDL). The negative cutter referred to this list while processing the negative, splitting the shots into rolls, which were then contact printed to produce the final film print or answer print. Today, production companies have the option of bypassing negative cutting altogether. With the advent of digital intermediate ("DI"), the physical negative does not necessarily need to be physically cut and hot spliced together; rather the negative is optically scanned into computer(s) and a cut list is conformed by a DI editor.
While collaborating on what is referred to as the "director's cut", the director and the editor go over the entire movie in great detail; scenes and shots are re-ordered, removed, shortened and otherwise tweaked. Often it is discovered that there are plot holes, missing shots or even missing segments which might require that new scenes be filmed. Because of this time working closely and collaborating – a period that is normally far longer, and far more intimately involved, than the entire production and filming – most directors and editors form a unique artistic bond.
ContinuityContinuity is a film term that suggests that a series of shots should be physically continuous, as if the camera simply changed angles in the course of a single event. For instance, if in one shot a beer glass is empty, it should not be full in the next shot. Live coverage of a sporting event would be an example of footage that is very continuous. Since the live operators are cutting from one live feed to another, the physical action of the shots matches very closely. Many people regard inconsistencies in continuity as mistakes, and often the editor is blamed. In film, however, continuity is very nearly last on a film editor's list of important things to maintain.
Technically, continuity is the responsibility of the script supervisor and film director, who are together responsible for preserving continuity and preventing errors from take to take and shot to shot. The script supervisor, who sits next to the director during shooting, keeps the physical continuity of the edit in mind as shots are set up. He is the editor's watchman. If shots are taken out of sequence, as is often the case, he will be alert to make sure that that beer glass is in the appropriate state. The editor utilizes the script supervisor's notes during post-production to log and keep track of the vast amounts of footage and takes that a director might shoot.
Methods of montageIn motion picture terminology, a montage (from the French for "putting together" or "assembly") is a film editing technique.
There are at least three senses of the term:
- In French film practice, "montage" has its literal French meaning (assembly, installation) and simply identifies editing.
- In Soviet filmmaking of the 1920s, "montage" was a method of juxtaposing shots to derive new meaning that did not exist in either shot alone.
- In classical Hollywood cinema, a "montage sequence" is a short segment in a film in which narrative information is presented in a condensed fashion.
Although, strictly speaking, U.S. film director D.W. Griffith was not part of the montage school, he was one of the early proponents of the power of editing — mastering cross-cutting to show parallel action in different locations, and codifying film grammar in other ways as well. Griffith's work in the teens was highly regarded by Kuleshov and other Soviet filmmakers and greatly influenced their understanding of editing.
Sergei Eisenstein was briefly a student of Kuleshov's, but the two parted ways because they had different ideas of montage. Eisenstein regarded montage as a dialectical means of creating meaning. By contrasting unrelated shots he tried to provoke associations in the viewer, which were induced by shocks.
Alternatives to continuity editing (non-traditional or experimental)Early Russian filmmakers such as Lev Kuleshov further explored and theorized about editing and its ideological nature. Sergei Eisenstein developed a system of editing that was unconcerned with the rules of the continuity system of classical Hollywood that he called Intellectual montage.
Alternatives to traditional editing were also the folly of early surrealist and dada filmmakers such as Luis Buñuel (director of the 1929 Un Chien Andalou) and René Clair (director of 1924's Entr'acte which starred famous dada artists Marcel Duchamp and Man Ray). Both filmmakers, Clair and Buñuel, experimented with editing techniques long before what is referred to as "MTV style" editing.
The French New Wave filmmakers such as Jean-Luc Godard and François Truffaut and their American counterparts such as Andy Warhol and John Cassavetes also pushed the limits of editing technique during the late 1950s and throughout the 1960s. French New Wave films and the non-narrative films of the 1960s used a carefree editing style and did not conform to the traditional editing etiquette of Hollywood films. Like its dada and surrealist predecessors, French New Wave editing often drew attention to itself by its lack of continuity, its demystifying self-reflexive nature (reminding the audience that they were watching a film), and by the overt use of jump cuts or the insertion of material not often related to any narrative.
Editing techniquesVsevolod Pudovkin noted that the editing process is the one phase of production that is truly unique to motion pictures. Every other aspect of film making originated in a different medium than film (photography, art direction, writing, sound recording), but editing is the one process that is unique to film. Kubrick was quoted as saying: "I love editing. I think I like it more than any other phase of film making. If I wanted to be frivolous, I might say that everything that precedes editing is merely a way of producing film to edit."
Edward Dmytryk lays out seven "rules of cutting" that a good editor should follow:
- "Rule 1: NEVER make a cut without a positive reason."
- "Rule 2: When undecided about the exact frame to cut on, cut long rather than short."
- "Rule 3: Whenever possible cut 'in movement'."
- "Rule 4: The 'fresh' is preferable to the 'stale'."
- "Rule 5: All scenes should begin and end with continuing action."
- "Rule 6: Cut for proper values rather than proper 'matches'."
- "Rule 7: Substance first—then form."
- Emotion (51%) — Does the cut reflect what the editor believes the audience should be feeling at that moment?
- Story (23%) — Does the cut advance the story?
- Rhythm (10%) — Does the cut occur "at a moment that is rhythmically interesting and 'right'" (Murch, 18)?
- Eye-trace (7%) — Does the cut pay respect to "the location and movement of the audience's focus of interest within the frame" (Murch, 18)?
- Two-dimensional plane of the screen (5%) — Does the cut respect the 180 degree rule?
- Three-dimensional space of action (4%) — Is the cut true to the physical/spatial relationships within the diegesis?
According to writer-director Preston Sturges:
[T]here is a law of natural cutting and that this replicates what an audience in a legitimate theater does for itself. The more nearly the film cutter approaches this law of natural interest, the more invisible will be his cutting. If the camera moves from one person to the next at the exact moment that one in the legitimate theatre would have turned his head, one will not be conscious of a cut. If the camera misses by a quarter of a second, one will get a jolt. There is one other requirement: the two shots must be approximately of the same tone value. At any given time, the camera must point at the exact spot the audience wishes to look at. To find that spot is absurdly easy: one has only to remember where one was looking at the time the scene was made.
- Dmytryk, Edward (1984). On Film Editing: An Introduction to the Art of Film Construction. Focal Press, Boston.
- Eisenstein, Sergei (2010). Towards a Theory of Montage. Tauris, London. ISBN 978-1-84885-356-0
- Knight, Arthur (1957). The Liveliest Art. Mentor Books. New American Library.
- Morales, Morante, Luis Fernando (2000). Teoría y Práctica de la Edición en video. Universidad de San Martin de Porres, Lima, Perú
- Murch, Walter (2001). In the Blink of an Eye: a Perspective on Film Editing. Silman-James Press. 2d rev. ed.. ISBN 1-879505-62-2
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Film editing.
U svojoj temeljnoj biti, filmska montaža je i umijeće, i tehnika, i vještina sklapanja kadrova u koherentnu cjelinu. Filmski montažer je osoba koja obavlja montažu slažući snimljeni materijal. No njegov posao nije tek mehaničko povezivanje dijelova filma, izrezivanje viškova ili montaža prizora dijaloga. Montažer mora upotrijebiti svoju kreativnost kako bi uskladio sliku, priču, dijaloge, glazbu i glumačku izvedbu u jednu koheziju, pa kažemo da on ima dinamičku ulogu u procesu stvaranja filma.
Montažeri slike su se nekada bavili samo slikom, dok su montažeri zvuka, glazbe i vizualnih efekata bili više vezani uz druga usmjerenja. S napretkom digitalne montaže su pak filmski montažeri, zajedno sa svojim asistentima, postali odgovorni za više područja rada na filmu koja nisu izvorno njihova. Danas je uobičajeno da montažer ubacuje glazbu, preslaguje vizualne i zvučne efekte. Obično se radi o privremenim umetcima koje specijalizirani timovi kasnije zamjenjuju rafiniranim elementima.
Filmska montaža se kao umjetnost može koristiti na raznovrsne načine. Ona, između ostaloga, može biti osjetno provokativna, može biti laboratorij eksperimentalnog filma, može iz glumca izvući potpuni emocionalni naboj, može promijeniti točku gledišta za dati događaj, može voditi fabulu ili joj diktirati ritam, zatim stvoriti iluziju opasnosti kada je nema, a čak može uspostaviti podsvijesnu vezu s gledateljem.
This page is ready for students
May 15, 2008 -- See Mohamed Alsayed's animatic movie at YouTube.
These courses are not for documentaries, event video, corporate video, educational programs, or multimedia.
Anyone can learn to be a filmmaker
Filmmaking is easy
Filmmaking is not rocket science. Everything about filmmaking is extremely easy to learn. Anyone can do it if they wish.
The challenge of learning filmmaking
The challenge is filmmaking requires learning a huge number of skills. Each skill is easy to learn but the number of things you must learn is huge.
If you want to be an independent filmmaker, you must learn the equivalent of 20 different careers. Even if you are a fast learner, it can take you years to learn everything.
Telling a story
In a dramatic motion picture, the story is told by many people. The cinematographer tells the story with the camera. The lighting person tells the story with lighting. The film composer tells the story with music. The actors tell the story with action and dialog. The editor tells the story with editing. The sound designer tells the story with sound.
You have to learn all of this
And as an independent filmmaker, you must learn all of these skills.
If you fail to learn even one of these skills, people will notice and be turned off by your movie. You must learn everything!!!!
Film School Preparatory
Wikiversity Film School is a preparatory school for budding filmmakers who plan to go to film school or take classes in motion picture production.
Each year, USC Film School receives 800 applicants to fill just 50 undergraduate positions.
We teach you the things that film schools expect you to know before you get to film school so that you can have a base to work from when you first start film-school.
Learning filmmaking software
First, you need to do is learn about the computer software for filmmaking. See below for a list of the software you will need. Most is free!
Designed for the Macintosh
The Film Scoring course is designed for Apple's GarageBand with Jam Pack: Symphony Orchestra
The Film Editing course is designed for Apple's Final Cut Pro or Adobe Premiere.
Where possible, free Linux software is listed.
However, there is still no standard movie file format for Linux and nothing which matches the quality and usefulness of Apple's GarageBand for film scoring.
Therefore, Linux is currently not a good choice for filmmakers.
What do we do?
Make a tiny movie
In the filmmaking class, we create a short motion picture. It is less than a minute long so it is very simple.
Where to start?
Filmmaking, editing, and scoring
Budding filmmakers should start with the basic filmmaking course. For the first lesson, you will format a very short motion picture script. After that, take the pop quiz where you tell me how you would begin to film this scene.
If you want to be a film composer (but you are not a musician), screen writer, or a film editor, you can go directly to the courses in film editing or film scoring or the script writing exercise.
If you are a musician who wants to be a film composer, click here.
These filmmaking courses are free. The only requirement is you submit your homework assignments so others can benefit. (see right)
If you do not wish to purchase the required disks from the Star Movie Shop, you can borrow the disks from the instructor. You will have one month before you must return each disk.
I always try to select programs which are free.
Sharing your work
Your homework assignments
Your completed assignments must be submitted under the Free Documentation License or as Public Domain.
This allows what you have learned to be shared by others.
Free Filmmaking Software at Wikiversity Film School
There is some of free software used at Wikiversity Film School. Sometimes, this software is demo versions or simplified versions of software but this is good enough to complete these lessons. Using free software, you can learn a tremendous amount about filmmaking.
FrameForge 3D Studio Free Demo Version
Basic filmmaking (pre-production)
The heart of the Wikiversity Film School's basic filmmaking course (pre-production) is FrameForge 3D Studio 2 Demo Version. This is the most educational program used at Wikiversity Film School. And the demo version is free for both the Macintosh and Windows operating system.
This program simulates the motion picture camera, the movie set, and the actors. The program is useful for experimenting with the different lenses on your motion picture camera. And the final output of FrameForge 3D Studio 2 Demo Version is completely frame accurate (including depth of field effects) ready to give your cinematographer for creating all the shots of your movie.
The free demo version is limited to 20 uses. Other limitations apply. However, this is more than enough to complete your assignments at Wikiversity Film School. Download this free program today and begin learning how to use it.
All film scoring lessons at Wikiversity Film School can be done using Apple's GarageBand which is free with each new Macintosh PC.
In addition to a midi program like GarageBand, you will also need a good selection of musical instruments for the symphony orchestra. Some musical software instruments of the symphony orchestra for GarageBand are free (such as the packages from Boldt) and some are not. I recommend Apple's Jam Pack:Symphony Orchestra. I have not tried Apple's new Jam Pack for voices which should also be useful.
· Filmmakers should NOT use Apple's Logic 7 which is poorly designed and exceedingly awkward. I have not tried version 8 yet.
· I do not know what to recommend for Windows.
Editing Workshop disks
The filmmaking course, film editing course, and film scoring course use Editing Workshop disks developed by the Star Movie Shop. The Star Movie Shop is not open to the public. It is only for serious film students.
These disks contain unedited scenes from television dramas for editing and scoring on the Macintosh computer. This is the real thing. Most film dailies require QuickTime. Files can be converted to other formats for Windows using additional software (not provided.)
All of the informational contents of these Editing Workshop disks is distributed under the GNU Open Source Document License.
May through September, 2008
Currently, you can receive the first disk for free once you have completed the first part of the film scoring or the basic filmmaking course. When you receive a disk, you must edit the scene or score the scene to receive the next disk for free. To save money on shipping, you are requested to share the disk with other young filmmakers in your country. (Available to most locations on the planet. Some restrictions apply. Obviously, additional software required.)
Starting in 2009, Wikiversity Film School will have a simple course in 3D animation. This will use the free programs of DAZ Studio and Bryce 5.5.
If you have Poser and Vue, you can use those programs but they are not free.
DAZ Studio and Bryce take time to learn so if you are interested in working with 3D, you should download these free programs and begin to learn them.
Other useful programs
· ArtRage 2.5 Starter Edition is a free used for matte painting and creating the movie poster. This is a simple and fun artistic painting program. Feels very natural. Extremely useful. If you need any kind of digital painting with traditional artist materials, this is your first choice. This is the free version which is fully working but more limited than the full version which is also remarkably inexpensive.
· GIMP is a free paint program comparable to Adobe Photoshop. Surprisingly mature program but definitely not as easy to use as Photoshop. Requires X-11. If you do not have Adobe Photoshop 4 or later, this program is absolutely necessary for some of the classes at Wikiversity Film School.
· Audacity is a free useful utility for working with audio and converting audio to OGG files. It is a bit awkward but it is free.
· Tux Paint is a free fun paint program for kids. It has the added advantage of using rubber stamps and creating matte paintings easily. Has the unique feature of doing rough storyboards with special storyboard artwork. Also useful for one of the lessons about learning matte painting at Wikiversity Film School for kids.
Where to begin?
· If you want to become a filmmaker, start with the Basic Filmmaking Course.
· Later, when you are ready, you should also take the Film Editing Course.
· The most important course of all is film scoring. You will need the Film Scoring Course to complete the other two courses.
Contact your instructor
- Digital Tipping Point wiki - Collaborative open documentary
- Student in the Basic Filmmaking Course may upload their own assignments.
- Student in the Film Scoring Course may upload their own assignments.
- Student in the Film Editing Course may upload their own assignments.
- Online film izlemek mi istiyorsunuz Ozaman Buyrun : online film izle den izleyebilirsiniz..
- Completed resources
- WikiU Film School
- Narrative Film Production
- Narrative Film Editing
- Filmmaking in the Drama Department
- Film scoring