मंगलवार, 7 अगस्त 2012

Communications in India

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Wikipedian in India on a Nokia phone
Communications in India
Telephone Subscribers (Total) (2012) 960.9 million (May 2012)
Fixed lines (May 2012) 31.53 million
Mobile phones (2012) 929.37 million
Monthly telephone additions (Net) (May 2012) 8.35 million
Teledensity (2012) 79.28 %
Projected teledensity by 2012 84 %
Internet access
Percent household access (total), 2012 10.2% of households (121 million)
Percent broadband household access 1.18% of households (14.31 million)
Broadband internet users 14.31 million (May 2012)[1]
Internet Service Providers (2012) 155
country code top-level domain .in
Television broadcast stations (2009) 1,400
Radio broadcast stations (1997) 800
India's telecommunication network is the third largest in the world on the basis of its customer base and it has one of the lowest tariffs in the world enabled by the hyper-competition in its market. Major sectors of the Indian telecommunication industry are telephony, internet and broadcasting.
Telephonic network in the country which is in an ongoing process of converging to Next Generation Network, employs an extensive system of network elements such as digital telephone exchanges, Mobile Switching Centers, Media gateways and Signalling gateways at the core, interconnected by a wide variety of transmission systems using media such as Optical fiber or Microwave radio relay. The access network which connects the subscriber to the core is highly diversified with different copper-pair, optic-fibre and wireless technologies. DTH, a relatively new broadcasting technology has attained significant popularity in the Television segment. Introduction to private FM has given a fillip to the radio broadcasting in India . Telecommunication in India is assisted by the INSAT system of the country, one of the largest domestic satellite systems in the world. India possesses a diversified communications system that link all parts of the country by telephone, Internet, radio, television and satellite.[2]
Indian telecom industry underwent a high pace of market liberalization and growth since 1990s and now has become the world's most competitive and one of the fastest growing telecom markets.[3][4] India has the world's second-largest mobile phone user base with over 929.37 million users as of May 2012.[2] It has the world's third-largest Internet user-base with over 121 million as of December 2011.[5]
The industry is expected to reach a size of INR344,921 crore (US$62.43 billion) by 2012 at a growth rate of over 26 per cent, and generate employment opportunities for about 10 million people during the same period. According to analysts, the sector would create direct employment for 2.8 million people and for 7 million indirectly.[6] The total revenue of the Indian telecom sector grew by 7% to INR283,207 crore (US$51.26 billion) for 2010–11 financial year, while revenues from telecom equipment segment stood at INR117,039 crore (US$21.18 billion).[7]
Telecommunication has supported the socioeconomic development of India and has played a significant role to narrow down the rural-urban digital divide to some extend. It also has helped to increase the transparency of governance with the introduction of E-governance in India. Government has significantly used the popularity of radio and television among rural people for many mass education programmes.[8]



[edit] History

[edit] The Beginning

A microwave tower for short distance (~50 km) communication.
The history of Indian telecom can be started with the introduction of telegraph. The Indian postal and telecom sectors are one of the worlds oldest. In 1850, the first experimental electric telegraph line was started between Kolkata and Diamond Harbour. In 1851, it was opened for the use of the British East India Company. The Posts and Telegraphs department occupied a small corner of the Public Works Department,[9] at that time.
Subsequently, the construction of 4,000 miles (6,400 km) of telegraph lines connecting Kolkata (then Calcutta) and Peshawar in the north along with Agra, Mumbai (then Bombay) through Sindwa Ghats, and Chennai (then Madras) in the south, as well as Ootacamund and Bangalore was started in November 1853. William O'Shaughnessy, who pioneered the telegraph and telephone in India, belonged to the Public Works Department, and worked towards the development of telecom throughout this period. A separate department was opened in 1854 when telegraph facilities were opened to the public.
In 1880, two telephone companies namely The Oriental Telephone Company Ltd. and The Anglo-Indian Telephone Company Ltd. approached the Government of India to establish telephone exchanges in India. The permission was refused on the grounds that the establishment of telephones was a Government monopoly and that the Government itself would undertake the work. In 1881, the Government later reversed its earlier decision and a licence was granted to the Oriental Telephone Company Limited of England for opening telephone exchanges at Kolkata, Mumbai, Chennai and Ahmedabad and the first formal telephone service was established in the country.[10] On 28 January 1882, Major E. Baring, Member of the Governor General of India's Council declared open the Telephone Exchanges in Kolkata, Bombay and Chennai. The exchange in Kolkata named the "Central Exchange" had a total of 93 subscribers in its early stage. Later that year, Mumbai also witnessed the opening of a telephone exchange.[11]

[edit] Further developments and milestones

Development of Broadcasting: Radio broadcasting was initiated in 1927 but became state responsibility only in 1930. In 1937 it was given the name All India Radio and since 1957 it has been called Akashvani.[13] Limited duration of television programming began in 1959, and complete broadcasting followed in 1965. The Ministry of Information and Broadcasting owned and maintained the audio-visual apparatus—including the television channel Doordarshan—in the country prior to the economic reforms of 1991. In 1997, an autonomous body was established in the name of Prasar Bharti to take care of the public service broadcasting under the Prasar Bharti Act. All India Radio and Doordarshan, which earlier were working as media units under the Ministry of I&B became constituents of the body.[8]
Pre-liberalization statistics: While all the major cities and towns in the country were linked with telephones during the British period, the total number of telephones in 1948 numbered only around 80,000. Post independence, growth remained slow because the telephone was seen more as a status symbol rather than being an instrument of utility. The number of telephones grew leisurely to 980,000 in 1971, 2.15 million in 1981 and 5.07 million in 1991, the year economic reforms were initiated in the country.

[edit] Liberalization and privatization

Liberalization of Indian telecommunication industry started in 1981 when Prime Minister Indira Gandhi signed contracts with Alcatel CIT of France to merge with the state owned Telecom Company (ITI), in an effort to set up 5,000,000 lines per year. But soon the policy was let down because of political opposition.[14]Rajiv Gandhi. He invited Sam Pitroda, a US based Non-resident Indian NRI and a former Rockwell International executive to set up a Center for Development of Telematics(C-DOT) which manufactured electronic telephone exchanges in India for the first time.[15] Sam Pitroda had a significant role as a consultant and adviser in the development of telecommunication in India.[16] Attempts to liberalize the telecommunication industry were continued by the following government under the prime-minister-ship of
In 1985, the Department of Telecom(DoT) was separated from Indian Post & Telecommunication Department. DoT was responsible for telecom services in entire country until 1986 when Mahanagar Telephone Nigam Limited (MTNL) and Videsh Sanchar Nigam Limited (VSNL) were carved out of DoT to run the telecom services of metro cities(Delhi and Mumbai) and international long distance operations respectively.[15]
The demand for telephones was ever increasing and in 1990s Indian government was under increasing pressure to open up the telecom sector for private investment as a part of Liberalisation-Privatization-Globalization policies that the government had to accept to overcome the severe fiscal crisis and resultant balance of payments issue in 1991. Consequently, private investment in the sector of Value Added Services (VAS) was allowed and cellular telecom sector were opened up for competition from private investments. It was during this period that the Narsimha Rao-led government introduced the National Telecommunications policy (NTP) in 1994 which brought changes in the following areas: ownership, service and regulation of telecommunications infrastructure. The policy introduced the concept of telecommunication for all and it's vision was to expand the telecommunication facilities to all the villages in India.[17] Liberalization in the basic telecom sector was also envisaged in this policy.[18] They were also successful in establishing joint ventures between state owned telecom companies and international players. Foreign firms were eligible to 49% of the total stake. The multi-nationals were just involved in technology transfer, and not policy making.[14]
During this period, the World Bank and ITU had advised the Indian Government to liberalise long distance services to release the monopoly of the state owned DoT and VSNL and to enable competition in the long distance carrier business which would help reduce tariff's and better the economy of the country. The Rao run government instead liberalised the local services, taking the opposite political parties into confidence and assuring foreign involvement in the long distance business after 5 years. The country was divided into 20 telecommunication circles for basic telephony and 18 circles for mobile services. These circles were divided into category A, B and C depending on the value of the revenue in each circle. The government threw open the bids to one private company per circle along with government owned DoT per circle. For cellular service two service providers were allowed per circle and a 15 years license was given to each provider. During all these improvements, the government did face oppositions from ITI, DoT, MTNL, VSNL and other labour unions, but they managed to keep away from all the hurdles.[14]
In 1997, the government set up TRAI (Telecom Regulatory Authority of India) which reduced the interference of Government in deciding tariffs and policy making. The political powers changed in 1999 and the new government under the leadership of Atal Bihari Vajpayee was more pro-reforms and introduced better liberalisation policies. The government corporatised the operations wing of DoT on 1 October 2000 and named it as Department of Telecommunication Services (DTS) which was later named as Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (BSNL). The proposal of raising the stake of foreign investors from 49% to 74% was rejected by the opposite political parties and leftist thinkers. Domestic business groups wanted the government to privatize VSNL. Finally in April 2002, the government decided to cut its stake of 53% to 26% in VSNL and to throw it open for sale to private enterprises. TATA finally took 25% stake in VSNL.[14]
This was a gateway to many foreign investors to get entry into the Indian Telecom Markets. After March 2000, the government became more liberal in making policies and issuing licenses to private operators. The government further reduced license fees for cellular service providers and increased the allowable stake to 74% for foreign companies. Because of all these factors, the service fees finally reduced and the call costs were cut greatly enabling every common middle-class family in India to afford a cell phone. Nearly 32 million handsets were sold in India. The data reveals the real potential for growth of the Indian mobile market.[19]Reliance Communications, Tata Indicom, Vodafone, Loop Mobile, Airtel, Idea etc., successfully entered the high potential Indian telecom market. Many private operators, such as
In March 2008 the total GSM and CDMA mobile subscriber base in the country was 375 million, which represented a nearly 50% growth when compared with previous year.[20] As the unbranded Chinese cell phones which do not have International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI) numbers pose a serious security risk to the country, Mobile network operators therefore planned to suspend the usage of around 30 million mobile phones (about 8 % of all mobiles in the country) by 30 April.[21] 5–6 years the average monthly subscribers additions were around 0.05 to 0.1 million only and the total mobile subscribers base in December 2002 stood at 10.5 millions. However, after a number of proactive initiatives taken by regulators and licensors, the total number of mobile subscribers has increased rapidly to over 929 million subscribers as of May 2012.
India has opted for the use of both the GSM (global system for mobile communications) and CDMA (code-division multiple access) technologies in the mobile sector. In addition to landline and mobile phones, some of the companies also provide the WLL service. The mobile tariffs in India have also become lowest in the world. A new mobile connection can be activated with a monthly commitment of US$0.15 only. In 2005 alone additions increased to around 2 million per month in 2003–04 and 2004–05.[citation needed]

[edit] Sectors

Major sectors of telecommunication industry in India are telephony, internet and broadcasting. The primary regulator of telecommunications in India is the Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI).[22] It regulates all of the segments mentioned below.

[edit] Telephony

Market share of major operators in India as on 29 February 2012

Market share of major operators in India as on 29 February 2012
The telephony segment is dominated by private-sector and two state-run businesses. Most companies were formed by a recent revolution and restructuring launched within a decade, directed by Ministry of Communications and IT, Department of Telecommunications and Minister of Finance. Since then, most companies gained 2G, 3G and 4G licenses and engaged fixed-line, mobile and internet business in India. On landlines, intra-circle calls are considered local calls while inter-circle are considered long distance calls. Foreign Direct Investment policy which increased the foreign ownership cap from 49% to 74%. Currently Government is working to integrate the whole country in one telecom circle. For long distance calls, the area code prefixed with a zero is dialled first which is then followed by the number (i.e. To call Delhi, 011 would be dialled first followed by the phone number). For international calls, "00" must be dialled first followed by the country code, area code and local phone number. The country code for India is 91. Several international fibre-optic links include those to Japan, South Korea, Hong Kong, Russia, and Germany. Some major telecom operators in India include Airtel, Vodafone, Idea, Aircel, BSNL, MTNL, Reliance Communications, TATA Teleservices, Infotel, MTS, Uninor, TATA DoCoMo, Videocon, Augere, Tikona Digital.

[edit] Fixed Telephony

Until the New Telecom Policy was announced in 1999, only the Government-owned BSNL and MTNLcopper wire in India with MTNLoperating in DelhiMumbai and BSNL servicing all other areas of the country. Due to the rapid growth of the cellular phone industry in India, landlines are facing stiff competition from cellular operators. This has forced land-line service providers to become more efficient and improve their quality of service. Land-line connections are now also available on demand, even in high density urban areas. India has over 31 million main line customers. were allowed to provide land-line phone services through and

[edit] Mobile Telephony

Cellular phone tower atop the roof of a building

Typical signboards of STD booths (kiosks from where STD calls can be made) and internet kiosks in India

AIR Radio Tower
In August 1995, Chief Minister of West Bengal, Shri Jyoti Basu ushered in the cellphone revolution in India by making the first call to Union Telecom Minister Sukhram.[23] Sixteen years later 4th generation services were launched in Kolkata.[24]
With a subscriber base of more than 929 million, the Mobile telecommunications system in India is the second largest in the world and it was thrown open to private players in the 1990s. GSM was comfortably maintaining its position as the dominant mobile technology with 80% of the mobile subscriber market, but CDMA seemed to have stabilised its market share at 20% for the time being. By May 2012 the country had 929 million mobile subscribers, up from 350 million just 40 months earlier. The mobile market was continuing to expand at an annual rate in excess of 40% coming into 2010.
The country is divided into multiple zones, called circles (roughly along state boundaries). Government and several private players run local and long distance telephone services. Competition has caused prices to drop and calls across India are one of the cheapest in the world.[25] The rates are supposed to go down further with new measures to be taken by the Information Ministry.[26] In September 2004, the number of mobile phone connections crossed the number of fixed-line connections and presently dwarfs the wireline segment by a ratio of around 20:1. The mobile subscriber base has grown by a factor of over a hundred and thirty, from 5 million subscribers in 2001 to over 929 million subscribers as of May 2012. India primarily follows the GSMAirtel, Reliance Infocomm, Vodafone, Idea cellular and BSNL/MTNL. There are many smaller players, with operations in only a few states. International roaming agreements exist between most operators and many foreign carriers. The government allowed Mobile number portability (MNP) which enables mobile telephone users to retain their mobile telephone numbers when changing from one mobile network operator to another.[27] India is divided into 22 telecom circles:[28] mobile system, in the 900 MHz band. Recent operators also operate in the 1800 MHz band. The dominant players are
Telecom circle Wireline subscriber base in million(May 2012) Wireless subscriber base in million(May 2012) Teledensity (May 2012)
Andhra Pradesh 2.33 66.6 80.46
Assam 0.20 14.6 47.7
Bihar & Jharkhand 0.56 62.97 48.37
Delhi 2.9 42.95 239.91
Gujarat & Daman & Diu 1.82 54.32 92.56
Haryana 0.59 23.00 90.86
Himachal Pradesh 0.30 7.41 112.29
Jammu and Kashmir 0.20 6.57 56.92
Karnataka 2.48 56.63 98.22
Kerala & Lakshadweep 3.18 34.51 107.85
Kolkata 1.18 25.25 Not available*
Madhya Pradesh & Chhattisgarh 1.13 53.30 55.38
Maharashtra & Goa (excluding Mumbai ) 2.64 71.00 96.71 *
Mumbai* 3.0 35.93 Not available *
North East ^** 0.25 8.76 64.74
Orissa 0.40 26.27 64.73
Punjab 1.44 31.17 110.22
Rajastan 1.14 49.52 73.26
Tamil Nadu(including Chennai since 2005)[29] 3.16 78.96 118.29
Uttar Pradesh(East) 1.20 77.74 62.65(Combined)*
Uttar Pradesh(West) & Uttarakhand 0.79 55.12 62.65(Combined)*
West Bengal(excluding Kolkata)*** 0.62 46.79 80.56 *
^* Population statistics are available state-wise only. ^** North east circle includes Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, & Tripura ^*** West Bengal circle includes Andaman-Nicobar and Sikkim

[edit] Internet

The history of internet in India started with launch of internet services by VSNL on 15 August 1995, the 48th anniversary of Indian independence. They were able to add about 10,000 internet users with in 6 months.[30]an always-on internet connection with download speed of 256 kbit/s or above.[31] From 2005 onward the growth of broadband sector in the country attained acceleration, but remained below the growth estimates of government and related agencies due to the resource issues in last-mile access which depended on wired-line technologies predominantly. This bottleneck was removed in 2010 when government auctioned the 3G spectrum followed by an equally high profile auction of 4G spectrum that set the scene for a competitive and invigorated wireless broadband market. Now internet access in India is provided by both public and private companies using a variety of technologies and media including Dial-Up(PSTN), xDSL, Coaxial Cables, Ethernet, FTTH, ISDN, HSDPA (3G), WiFi, WiMAX etc. at a wide range of speeds and costs. The country has the world's third largest Internet users with over 121 million users (of whom 59% who only access the internet via mobile devices) as of December 2011.[32] However for the next 10 years internet experience in the country remained less attractive with narrow-band connections having speed less than 56 kbit/s (Dial-Up). In 2004, Government formulated it's Broadband policy which defined the broadband as
As of December 2011, total Internet connections stood at 22.39 million.[1] with estimated users exceeding 121 million. The number of broadband users has increased from 0.18 million in March 2005 to 13.54 million in February 2012.Cumulative Annual Growth rate(CAGR) of the broadband during the five year period between 2005 and 2010 was about 117 per cent.[31] Among the technologies, DSL, whilst holding slightly more than 75% of the local broadband market, was steadily losing market share to other non-DSL broadband platforms, especially to wireless broadband platforms.
There are 155 Internet Service Providers (ISPs) as of February 2012, which offer broadband services in India. Public sector companies BSNL and MTNL dominates the market with a share of 64.8 and 7.6 percent respectively while from the private sector Bharti leads with a share of 10 per cent.[33] Cyber Cafe remains as the major source of internet access. In 2009, about 37 per cent of the users access from Cyber cafe, 30 per cent from office and 23 per cent from home. However, the number of mobile internet users found acceleration from 2009 onward and there were about 274 million such users at the end of September 2010, though majority belonged to 2G mobile networks.[31] Mobile internet subscriptions as reported by India's TRAI in Mar 2011 increased to 381 million.
One of the major issue, the internet segment facing is the lower average bandwidth of broadband connections compared to that of developed countries. According to 2007 statistics, the average download speed in India hovered at about 256 kbit/s, the minimum speed set by TRAI, whereas the international average was 5.6 Mbit/s during the same period. In order to attend this infrastructure issue the government declared 2007 as "the year of broadband".[34][35] To compete with international standards of defining broadband speed the Indian Government has taken aggressive step of proposing the $13 billion national broadband network to connect all cities, towns and villages with a population of more than 500 in two phases targeted for completion by 2012 and 2013. The network is estimated to handle speed up to 10 Mbit/s in 63 metropolitan areas and 4 Mbit/s in additional 352 cities. Also, the Internet penetration in India is one of the lowest in the world and only accounts for 8.4% of the population compared to OECD counties, where average penetration rate is over 50%.[5][36][37] Another issue reported from this sector is the digital divide of the growth story biased in favour of urban areas; according to 2010 statistics, more than 75 per cent of the broadband connections in the country are in top 30 cities.[31] Regulators have tried to boost the growth of broadband in in rural areas by promoting higher investment in rural infrastructure and subsidized tariff for rural subscribers under Universal service obligation scheme of the Indian government.

[edit] Broadcasting

INSAT-1B satellite: Broadcasting sector in India is highly dependent on INSAT system.
In India, only the government owned Doordarshan has the license for terrestrial television broadcast. Private companies reach the public using satellite channels; both cable television as well as DTH has obtained a wide subscriber base in India. Over the years, Doordarshan services have grown from a single national channel to six national and eleven regional channels. In 2012, India had about 148 million TV homes of which 126 million has access to cable and satellite services.[38]
Following the economic reforms in 1990s, satellite television channels from around the world—BBC, CNN, CNBC, and other private television channels gained a foothold in the country.[8] There are no regulations against ownership of satellite dishantennas, or operation of cable television systems, which led to an explosion of viewership and channels, led by the Star TV group and Zee TV. Initially restricted to music and entertainment channels, viewership grew, giving rise to several channels in regional languages, especially Hindi. The main news channels available were CNN and BBC World. In the late 1990s, many current affairs and news channels sprouted, becoming immensely popular because of the alternative viewpoint they offered compared to Doordarshan. Some of the notable ones are Aaj Tak (run by the India Today group) and STAR News, CNN-IBN, Times Now, initially run by the NDTV group and their lead anchor, Prannoy Roy (NDTVDoordarshan lost the leadership in market and it underwent many phases of modernization in order to contain tough competition from these private channels.[8] now has its own channels, NDTV 24x7, NDTV Profit and NDTV India). The incumbent,
Government of India has used the popularity of TV and radio among rural people for the implementation of many social-programmes including that of mass-education. On 16 November 2006, the Government of India released the community radio policy which allowed agricultural centres, educational institutions and civil society organisations to apply for community based FM broadcasting license. Community Radio is allowed 100 Watt Effective Radiated Power (ERP) with a maximum tower height of 30 meters. The license is valid for five years and one organisation can only get one license, which is non-transferable and to be used for community development purposes.

[edit] Next-generation networks (NGN)

Historically, the role of telecommunication has evolved from that of plain information exchange to a multi-service field, with Value Added Services (VAS) integrated with various discrete networks like PSTN, PLMN, Internet Backbone etc. However, with decreasing ARPU and increasing demand for VAS has become a compelling reason for the service providers to think of the convergence of these parallel networks into a single core network with service layers separated from network layer.[39] Next-generation networkingITU-T is:[40] is such a convergence concept which according to
A next-generation network (NGN) is a packet-based network which can provide services including Telecommunication Services and able to make use of multiple broadband, quality of Service-enabled transport technologies and in which service-related functions are independent from underlying transport-related technologies. It offers unrestricted access by users to different service providers. It supports generalized mobility which will allow consistent and ubiquitous provision of services to users.
Access network: The user can connect to the IP-core of NGN in various ways, most of which use the standard Internet Protocol (IP). User terminals such as mobile phones, personal digital assistants (PDAs) and computers can register directly on NGN-core, even when they are roaming in another network or country. The only requirement is that they can use IP and Session Initiation Protocol (SIP). Fixed access (e.g., Digital Subscriber Line (DSL), cable modems, Ethernet), mobile access (e.g. W-CDMA, CDMA2000, GSM, GPRS) and wireless access (e.g.WLAN, WiMAX) are all supported. Other phone systems like plain old telephone service and non-compatible VoIP systems, are supported through gateways. With the deployment of the NGN, users may subscribe to many simultaneous access-providers providing telephony, internet or entertainment services. This may provide end-users with virtually unlimited options to choose between service providers for these services in NGN environment.[39]
The hyper-competition in telecom market, which was effectively caused by the introduction of Universal Access Service (UAS) license in 2003 became much tougher after 3G and 4G competitive auction. About 670,000 route-kilometer (419,000 mile) of optical fibres has been laid in India by the major operators, including in the financially nonviable rural areas and the process continues.[citation needed] Keeping in mind the viability of providing services in rural areas, the government of India also took a proactive role to promote the NGN implementation in the country; an expert committee called NGN eCO was constituted in order to deliberate on the licensing, interconnection and Quality of Service (QoS) issues related to NGN and it submitted it's report on 24 August 2007. Telecom operators found the NGN model advantageous, but huge investment requirements have prompted them to adopt a multi-phase migration and they have already started the migration process to NGN with the implementation of IP-based core-network. [39]

[edit] Recent government policies and growth targets

  • All villages shall receive telecom facilities by the end of 2002.
  • A Communication Convergence Bill introduced in the Parliament on 31 August 2001 is presently before the Standing Committee of Parliament on Telecom and IT.
  • National Long Distance Service (NLD) is opened for unrestricted entry.
  • The International Long Distance Services (ILDS) have been opened to competition.
  • The basic services are open to competition.
  • In addition to the existing three, a fourth cellular operator, one each in four metros and thirteen circles, has been permitted. Cellular operators have been permitted to provide all types of mobile services including voice and non-voice messages, data services and PCOs utilising any type of network equipment, including circuit and/or package switches that meet certain required standards.
  • Policies allowing private participation have been announced as per the New Telecom Policy (NTP), 1999 in several new services, which include Global Mobile Personal Communication by Satellite (GMPCS) Service, digital Public Mobile Radio Trunked Service (PMRTS) and Voice Mail/ Audiotex/ Unified Messaging Services.
  • Wireless Local Loop (WLL) has been introduced to provide telephone connections in urban, semi-urban and rural areas promptly.
  • Two telecom PSUs, VSNL and HTL have been disinvested.
  • Steps are being taken to fulfill Universal Service Obligation (USO), funding, and administration.
  • A decision to permit Community Phone Service has been announced.
  • Multiple Fixed Service Providers (FSPs) licensing guidelines were announced.
  • Internet Service Providers (ISPs) have been allowed to set up International Internet Gateways, both Satellite and Landing stations for submarine optical fibre cables.
  • Two categories of infrastructure providers have been allowed to provide end-to-end bandwidth and dark fibre, right of way, towers, duct space etc.
  • Guidelines have been issued by the Government to open up Internet telephony (IP).

[edit] Regulatory environment

LIRNEasia's Telecommunications Regulatory Environment (TRE) index, which summarises stakeholders' perception on certain TRE dimensions, provides insight into how conducive the environment is for further development and progress. The most recent survey was conducted in July 2008 in eight Asian countries, including Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Maldives, Pakistan, Thailand, and the Philippines. The tool measured seven dimensions: i) market entry; ii) access to scarce resources; iii) interconnection; iv) tariff regulation; v) anti-competitive practices; and vi) universal services; vii) quality of service, for the fixed, mobile and broadband sectors.
The results for India, point out to the fact that the stakeholders perceive the TRE to be most conducive for the mobile sector followed by fixed and then broadband. Other than for Access to Scarce Resources the fixed sector lags behind the mobile sector. The fixed and mobile sectors have the highest scores for Tariff Regulation. Market entry also scores well for the mobile sector as competition is well entrenched with most of the circles with 4–5 mobile service providers. The broadband sector has the lowest score in the aggregate. The low penetration of broadband of mere 3.87 against the policy objective of 9 million at then end of 2007 clearly indicates that the regulatory environment is not very conducive.[41]

[edit] Revenue and growth

The total revenue in the telecom service sector was INR86,720 crore (US$15.7 billion) in 2005–06 as against INR71,674 crore (US$13 billion) in 2004–2005, registering a growth of 21%.estimted revenue of FY'2011 is Rs.835 crore (US$ 19 Bn Approx).The total investment in the telecom services sector reached INR200,660 crore (US$36.3 billion) in 2005–06, up from INR178,831 crore (US$32.4 billion) in the previous fiscal.[42] Telecommunication is the lifeline of the rapidly growing Information Technology industry. Internet subscriber base has risen to more than a 121 million in 2011.[43] Out of this 11.47 million were broadband connections. More than a billion people use the Internet globally. Under the Bharat Nirman Programme, the Government of India will ensure that 66,822 revenue villages in the country, which have not yet been provided with a Village Public Telephone (VPT), will be connected. However doubts have been raised about what it would mean for the poor in the country.[44]
It is difficult to ascertain fully the employment potential of the telecom sector but the enormity of the opportunities can be gauged from the fact that there were 3.7 million Public Call Offices in December 2005[45] up from 2.3 million in December 2004.
The Total Revenue of Indian Telecom Services company is likely to exceed Rs 200000 Cr ( US$ 44 Bn approx) for FY 11–12 based on FY 10–11 nos and latest quarterly results. These are consolidated nos including foreign operation of Bharti Airtel. The major contributions to this revenue are as follows: Bharti Airtel 65,060 Reliance Comm 31,468 Idea Cellular 16,936 Tata Comm 11,931 MTNL 4,380 TTML 2,248 BSNL 32,045 Voda 18,376 TataTeleservice 9,200 Aircel 7,968 SSTL 600 Uninor 660 Loop 560 Stel 60 HFCL 204 Videocon Telecom 254 DB Etisalat/ Allianz 47 Grand Total Rs 201,997 Crs contributed by Sanjay Banka, FCA

[edit] International

[edit] Submarine cables

  • LOCOM linking Chennai to Penang, Malaysia
  • India-UAEcable linking Mumbai to Al Fujayrah, UAE.
  • SEA-ME-WE 2 (South East Asia-Middle East-Western Europe 2)
  • SEA-ME-WE 3 (South East Asia-Middle East-Western Europe 3) – Landing sites at Cochin and Mumbai. Capacity of 960 Gbit/s.
  • SEA-ME-WE 4 (South East Asia-Middle East-Western Europe 4) – Landing sites at Mumbai and Chennai. Capacity of 1.28 Tbit/s.
  • Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG-FEA) with a landing site at Mumbai (2000). Initial design capacity 10 Gbit/s, upgraded in 2002 to 80 Gbit/s, upgraded to over 1 Tbit/s (2005).
  • TIISCS (Tata Indicom India-Singapore Cable System), also known as TIC (Tata Indicom Cable), Chennai to Singapore. Capacity of 5.12 Tbit/s.
  • i2i – Chennai to Singapore. Capacity of 8.4 Tbit/s.
  • SEACOM From Mumbai to the Mediterranean, via South Africa. It currently joins with SEA-ME-WE 4 off the west coast of Spain to carry traffic onward to London (2009). Capacity of 1.28 Tbit/s.
  • I-ME-WE (India-Middle East-Western Europe) with two landing sites at Mumbai (2009). Capacity of 3.84 Tbit/s.
  • EIG (Europe-India Gateway), landing at Mumbai (due Q2 2010).
  • MENA (Middle East North Africa).
  • TGN-Eurasia (Announced) Landing at Mumbai (due 2010?), Capacity of 1.28 Tbit/s
  • TGN-Gulf (Announced) Landing at Mumbai (due 2011?), Capacity Unknown.

[edit] See also

[edit] References

  1. ^ a b http://www.trai.gov.in/WriteReadData/PressRealease/Document/quarterly%20press%20release.pdf
  2. ^ a b "Highlights of Telecom Subscription Data as on 31 May 2012". TRAI. 4 July 2012. http://www.trai.gov.in/WriteReadData/PressRealease/Document/PR-TSD-May12.pdf. 
  3. ^ Dharmakumar, Rohin (19 October 2011). "India Telcos: Battle of the Titans". Forbes. http://www.forbes.com/2011/10/18/forbes-india-mukesh-ambani-sunil-mittal-battle-of-titans.html. Retrieved 19 August 2011. 
  4. ^ Kannan, Shilpa (7 April 2010). "India's 3G licence bidders bank on big changes". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/8607866.stm. 
  5. ^ a b "Internet Usage in Asia". International Telecommunications Unit: Asian Internet Users. ITU. http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats3.htm. Retrieved 10 January 2011. 
  6. ^ "Indian telecom market to be at Rs 344,921 crore by 2012". Economic Times (India). 25 March 2011. http://articles.economictimes.indiatimes.com/2007-11-22/news/27666023_1_indian-telecom-market-size-growth-rate. Retrieved 22 November 2007. 
  7. ^ "Telecom sector revenue grows 7% in FY '11". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 21 March 2011. http://www.thehindu.com/business/Industry/article2290247.ece. Retrieved 24 July 2011. 
  8. ^ a b c d Raju Thomas G. C.. Stanley Wolpert. ed. Encyclopedia of India (vol. 3). Thomson Gale. pp. 105–107. ISBN 0-684-31352-9. 
  9. ^ "Public Works Department". Pwd.delhigovt.nic.in. http://www.pwd.delhigovt.nic.in. Retrieved 1 September 2010. 
  10. ^ Vatsal Goyal, Premraj Suman. "The Indian Telecom Industry". IIM Calcutta. http://www.iimcal.ac.in/community/consclub/reports/telecom.pdf. 
  11. ^ "History of Calcutta telephones". Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited. http://www.calcuttatelephones.com/history_ctd.shtml. Retrieved 21 June 2012. 
  12. ^ http://dxm.org/techonomist/news/vsnlnow.html
  13. ^ Schwartzberg, Joseph E. (2008), India, Encyclopædia Britannica
  14. ^ a b c d Dash, Kishore. "Veto Players and the Deregulation of State-Owned Enterprises: The Case of Telecommunications in India" (PDF). http://www.thunderbird.edu/wwwfiles/publications/magazine/fall2005/pdf-files/Telecom_RevJune27AS__1.pdf. Retrieved 26 June 2008. 
  15. ^ a b Vanita Kohli (14 June 2006). The Indian Media Business. SAGE. pp. 189–. ISBN 978-0-7619-3469-1. http://books.google.com/books?id=hllyb6ymMy0C&pg=RA3-PA189. Retrieved 19 June 2012. 
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  17. ^ J.G. Valan Arasu (1 April 2008). Globalization And Infrastructural Development In India. Atlantic Publishers & Dist. pp. 105–. ISBN 978-81-269-0973-5. http://books.google.com/books?id=lqCNSdZwcsUC&pg=PA105. Retrieved 19 June 2012. 
  18. ^ Rafiq Dossani (1 July 2002). Telecommunications Reform in India. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 106–. ISBN 978-1-56720-502-2. http://books.google.com/books?id=waNrXeuXcacC&pg=PA106. Retrieved 19 June 2012. 
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  20. ^ "GSM, CDMA players maintain subscriber growth momentum-Telecom-News By Industry-News-The Economic Times". Economictimes.indiatimes.com. 18 March 2009. http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/News/News-By-Industry/Telecom/GSM-CDMA-players-maintain-subscriber-growth-momentum/articleshow/4281903.cms. Retrieved 22 July 2010. 
  21. ^ [1][dead link]
  22. ^ "History of TRAI". TRAI. http://www.trai.gov.in/Content/History.aspx. Retrieved 18 June 2012. 
  23. ^ "Kolkata connects India to 4G era". The Times Of India. 11 April 2012. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/kolkata-/Kolkata-connects-India-to-4G-era/articleshow/12617655.cms. 
  24. ^ "4G launched in Kolkota". The Times Of India. Times of India. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/business/india-business/Airtel-launches-4G-in-Kolkata/articleshow/12617622.cms. Retrieved 18 June 2012. 
  25. ^ "The death of STD". The Indian Express. 12 October 2006. http://www.indianexpress.com/story/14483.html. Retrieved 1 September 2010. 
  26. ^ "Free broadband, rent-free landlines likely: Maran". Rediff.com. 31 December 2004. http://www.rediff.com/money/2007/apr/26broad.htm. Retrieved 1 September 2010. 
  27. ^ "Mobile number portability: Switch tele operator!". oneindia.in. 20 January 2011. http://news.oneindia.in/2011/01/20/mobile-number-portability-switch-tele-operator-aid0101.html. 
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  29. ^ "Chennai metro merged with Tamilnadu". Department of Telecom, India. pp. Footnote 7. http://www.dot.gov.in/cmts/cmtsindex.htm. Retrieved 19 June 2012. 
  30. ^ Sursh K. Chouhan, T. A. V. Murthy. "Digital divide and India". Shodhganga@INFLIBNET Centre. pp. 384. http://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/dxml/bitstream/handle/1944/1205/41.pdf?sequence=1. Retrieved 20 June 2012. 
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  34. ^ "Broadband speeds around the world". BBC News. 2 December 2007. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/technology/7098992.stm. Retrieved 2 December 2007. 
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  39. ^ a b c "Consultation paper on NGN licensing". TRAI. http://trai.gov.in/WriteReaddata/ConsultationPaper/Document/NGN.pdf. 
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  45. ^ Press Release No. no. 35/2006 issued on 10 April 2006 by TRAI

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