रविवार, 22 जुलाई 2012

seminar / Accountability of media for the common public"/ manohar manoj


Raj Artha
Economy India _ Januray 2012 64
Ladies and gentlemen, I feel
this is a very good initiative
on the part of National
Journalist welfare board Orissa
branch, to organize seminar on the
"Accountability of media for the
common public" on the eve of
national press day. I am also happy
that you have invited me all the
way from Delhi to deliver keynote
address for this function. You have
also invited many dignitaries and
media person for their viewpoint
and their perspective on this very
topic.
Ladies and gentlemen, No doubt,
Media day by day is becoming
inseparable part of our whole system.
We can not complete any task
of nation building or making public
opinion for any kind of social
change without taking the help of
media. But despite all this what I
think, the existing Mass Media, it
does not come under any solid category,
What I mean to say, does
mass media really work as fourth
estate of democracy? Does mass
media really act as a mission for
the social change in the country? Is
mass media erupting as an emerging
industry of our national economy?
To some extent you can say
mass media is a mix of above all
those thing, to sum up, this is an
agent of publicity or opinion building
to some bit, which can not be
completely rated as a representative
of any single big category of a
democracy.
First of all I will talk about mass
media as a fourth estate of democracy.
It is very commonly said that
media is fourth pillar of democracy.
No democracy can survive
without the existence of free press.
It means media will work as fourth
pillar along with legislature, executive
and judiciary on the basis of
separation of power comprised
with mutual checks and balances
which is one of the basic theories of
democracy.
Media, as fourth estate of democracy-
I would like to say this saying
is just a prevalent and conventional
conception; it does not have any
legal or constitutional validity. Tell
me, in which constitution, it is
mentioned that mass media will
work as an institution which will
be kept as parallel to the other 3
prescribed pillars of democracy.
In order to this, Let us talk about
the biggest democratic constitution
of world, the Indian constitution;
our constitution does not mention
at all that free press will be here
which will work as fourth pillar in
India. Only our index of fundamental
rights under article 18, it is
said we will have the freedom of
expression for all citizens of country.
Only this one line of fundamental
right allows us to express
any thing against any individuals
or institutions. In the same way if
anyone has money or capital, he
can establish a media organization
or a newspaper to say anything
against anyone. Under this perception
the institutional establishment
of mass media organization has
nothing to do with the constitutional
requirement of the country.
Now we try to look into the status
of media in the context of public
requirement. The word mass
media literally means the media
for the masses. Do you think, in
India, media is really attached with
the all masses of the country;
means are all citizens of the country
networked with the mass
HOW WOULD BE
MEDIA ACCOUNTABLE
FOR
THE PUBLIC CAUSE
MANOHAR MANOJ
EDITOR, ECONOMY INDIA,
PRESIDENT-INDIAN YOUNG JOURNALISTS
ORGANISATION
We have several issues related to Mass Media, require
to be debated in the public forum. Media really needs
to to be redifined in many ways, because it is not a
full fledged fourth pillar of government, not a mission,
not a profession and not an industry, it is mix of all
Economy India _ Januray 2012 65
media, whether it is newspaper,
radio, TV or internet. Despite the
rapid growth of mass media still
only 20 percent of population read
newspaper in the country. Less
than 50 percent population view
TV or listen radio, less than 10 percent
population have access to
internet.
Second question is that, have concern
of all masses of the country
been covered in mass media in an
appropriate way? So far the size of
media coverage is concerned, in
India; media is still in the ambit of
mouthpiece arena rather than
medium for the masses. There is no
adequate space for the common citizen
other than politicians, film
stars and cricketers and some
newsmaker kind of things in our
mass media. What I mean to say,
India requires equality of expression
rather than freedom of expression,
equality of expression can
only guarantee the democratic
need of one billion people of the
country. Unfortunately it did not
happen in the country. In last 60
year, the journey of mass media
has been full of many hotchpotches.
Now we come on the second perception,
does mass media work as
a mission in India?. We always
expect mass media to work in a
missionary manner and thus we
want it to go all out against all
kinds of exploitations occurring in
the society, to oppose all kind of
injustice, to oppose all kind of maladministration
and bad governances,
irregularities, backwardness,
oppressions etc which are
occurring in the society. In order to
that media has to always work for
the betterment, for the welfare of
the masses. I think there are no
problems for the media to play
such kind of role rather media has
been doing this job quite nicely in
yesteryears. But the most important
question is who will sustain
the media? Who will be the caretakers
of media? Who will hold the
viability of mass media? Who will
guarantee the smooth career of all
media people who are working in
innumerable small, medium and
large media organizations of the
country?
Mass media organization need the
cost and return balances just like
any other business organizations.
Any mass media organization
whether it is newspaper or radio
station or TV channels or a news
website or outdoor media, it needs
investment on account of both
fixed capital and variable cost so
that it can be operated and sustained
for the longer period of
time. We all know that the selling
of newspaper, viewing of TV channels,
or subscribing of news website,
what we pay for them, It hardly
constitute a fraction of its total
cost. Newspaper is the only industry
in the world, which products
are sold at below cost of production.
Any manufacturing industry
despite the presence of a tough
competitive environment, always
have a cost plus pricing of their
product, but the newspaper industry
is exception. Though even in
some European countries, newspapers
are sold free of cost. There is
same case with the news channels,
what they get out of pay channel
subscription, it hardly constitute a
fraction of their cost. So under this
scenario how can we say mass
media can work as an industry?
We must know this fact; the majority
of costs of a media organization
come through advertisement. The
advertisement, which is a kind of
information which comes directly
from the informers and it, is paid
coverage items which may be contradictory
to the editorial contents
like news, analysis or investigation
reports or footages, which are
unpaid one.
Nowadays we hear a lot about
Paid news. There is big uproar
over it. I am not going to say this is
bad or good. But there are many
questions which have to be redefined
before the general public.
One must know that almost all
mass media are being feeded news
by PR companies and PR departments.
These organization work
for corporate, politician and political
parties, work for government
depts., NGO and social organizations,
film world etc. these agencies
take money out of these organization's
publicity budget. They
give their news and publicity
material to different Mass media
One must know that
almost all mass media
are being feeded news
by PR companies and
PR departments. These
organization work for
corporate, politician
and political parties,
work for government
depts., NGO and social
organizations, film
world etc. these agencies
take money out of
these organization's
publicity budget.
Raj Artha
Raj Artha
Economy India _ Januray 2012 66
under this very perception that
they will carry these news under
media's social commitment. I don't
say that under this process, media
people are not being pampered,
they are being given party and gift
etc. they are given priority while
giving facilities on the part of publicity
seeker organizations. But,
now media masters have decided
to take charges for those news coverage
especially during elections
time, which is being called paid
news. It is to be clearly stated, we
have plethora of news items, and
they all want to get publicized. In
this context media people and desk
coordinator play their power and
whims and fancies. In this circumstances,
what we see many valid
and remarkable news item are not
getting covered.
We all know lots of blackmailing
and bargaining are taking place
while covering any news items. It
is very difficult which are PR Kind
of news and which one is socially
and national important news. We
have many people who are ready
to expend their budget in order to
getting publicity of individuals or
product or organization. But we do
not have news ethics; it is left either
over tradition or over discretion of
media people. It is unfortunate we
have very few media people who
regard their media profession in a
missionary manner; they do not
have proper judgment and appropriate
observation regarding their
news planning, news selection and
its placement. For them media is
also just like another job.
The biggest difficulty under this
system is that one who does not
have paying capacity; his genuine
concern get ignored by the capitalist
media. I think if we have genuine
advertisement policy, at least
on the part of government, these
problems might have been averted.
The main parameter of today's
advertisement is number of circulation
and TRP. This is the root
cause of the entire problem. In
order to enhance circulation and
TRP, media become poised to carry
all sensational and spicy news to
any extent. So what we see media
are hugely after sex, violence and
all kind of yellow journalism
because they want to have more
and more readership and viewership
anyhow so that they can have
more say over advertisement. The
slab rates of advertisement are
decided shier on the basis of these
points. Govt. must give preference
to those kind of content of journalism
which can ensure the solemn
objectives of media, to provide
information, education, awareness,
knowledge and all kind of empowerment
which can raise voice
against all kinds of odds in forms
of injustice, exploitation, inequalities,
human rights and backwardness
etc. if good content being
made one of the fundamental criteria
for getting advt., many evils of
mass media will automatically go
away. But the problem is that
intention of government is not
good, they pamper only those
media who somehow favors govt.
The impartiality, neutrality, the
objectivity of coverage items and
wide public concern, these are the
factor which our media house must
follow and govt. should frame
media policy on this line.
Media can not fully
adopt missionary
approach, because it has
to survive financially. It
can not work as an
industry, because there
is a big gap between its
cost and return. It can
not work as fourth
estate of democracy
because it does not have
constitutional validity. It
can not adopt ethics,
because it has to blindly
go for high TRP in order
to generate revenue
Raj Artha
Economy India _ Januray 2012 67
Coming on the advertisement
front, we all know there is farce
competition among different
media set ups to garner more and
more advertisement. It is decided
by what, it is circulation numbers
for the print medium, it is TRP for
the TV channels, it is log in numbers
for the news website etc. The
TRP and circulation ratings are the
factors which are always on the top
of minds of all media organizations.
The idealistic perception of
news coverage, which is based on
giving priority to welfare of the
masses have gone to the backburner
now and all those coverage have
come in the forefront , which has a
more revenue potential for a media
organizations. In order to this, all
those coverage which has the
capacity to capture the psyche of
readers or audiences, are always
taken into account by the media
organizations. So we have always
high readership or viewer ship of
nude photograph, crime and sex
coverage and all the sensational
kind of thing which has nothing to
do with the lot of masses. This is as
much true as political party, who
opt those kind of issues in order to
attract and collect the people which
are very easy to use, like caste,
community, language and region
kinds of issues, these factors have
been always proved to be very
easy to galvanize the people . In
the same way it is very easy for a
mass media whether it is newspaper
or TV channel or a cinema to
sensationalize the public on sex,
violence nudity and various non
sense negative kinds of things
because people have psyche to get
in touch with this issue. It consequences
all ethics of mass media
gets buried and good media finds
it in hobnobbing situation.
We have many examples when a
media set up became popular
overnight by covering sensational
kind of things, a politician got popular
after the deliverance of riotous
speech. Under these circumstances
it is very difficult to decide an ideal
benchmark for a mass media
organization. It can not fully adopt
missionary approach, because it
has to survive financially. It can
not work as an industry, because
there is a big gap between its cost
and return. It can not work as
fourth estate of democracy because
it does not have constitutional
validity. It can not adopt ethics,
because it has to blindly go for
high TRP in order to generate revenue.
So ultimately a proper reconciliation
between market and public
interest is needed for the mass
media. It is true, both are contradictory
to each other, but the reality
is that a proper equilibrium is
always needed between them.
In the meantime what we see the
black money, the hawala money is
coming in a big way in Mass
Media, It is not the debt capital
from the commercial banks, which
is coming in media, Because this
black money holder knows it very
well that he is not going to get a
proper return over his black
money's investment, he only needs
a armory out of this investment in
media which could pass on his
other business and other activities
through the safe pass.
At last the plight of journalist especially
the career of young journalist
invites us for a very detail discussion.
I think the class who goes all
against all kind of exploitation prevailing
in the society, himself a
great exploited lot in many ways.
Our government, the main regulator
of our society, is stick with
accreditation and press club only
so far their intervention in mass
media is concerned. Govt should
go much beyond of it and must
provide a numbers of majors for
the complete welfare of all media
people in the country. thankyou
___
(This lecture was delivered by
Manohar Manoj, Editor& publisher,
Economy India, president,
Bharitya Yuva Patrakar Sangthan
on the eve of national press day
function, organized at
Bhubaneswar on 16-11-2011)
2

Raj Artha
Economy India _ Januray 2012 64
Ladies and gentlemen, I feel
this is a very good initiative
on the part of National
Journalist welfare board Orissa
branch, to organize seminar on the
"Accountability of media for the
common public" on the eve of
national press day. I am also happy
that you have invited me all the
way from Delhi to deliver keynote
address for this function. You have
also invited many dignitaries and
media person for their viewpoint
and their perspective on this very
topic.
Ladies and gentlemen, No doubt,
Media day by day is becoming
inseparable part of our whole system.
We can not complete any task
of nation building or making public
opinion for any kind of social
change without taking the help of
media. But despite all this what I
think, the existing Mass Media, it
does not come under any solid category,
What I mean to say, does
mass media really work as fourth
estate of democracy? Does mass
media really act as a mission for
the social change in the country? Is
mass media erupting as an emerging
industry of our national economy?
To some extent you can say
mass media is a mix of above all
those thing, to sum up, this is an
agent of publicity or opinion building
to some bit, which can not be
completely rated as a representative
of any single big category of a
democracy.
First of all I will talk about mass
media as a fourth estate of democracy.
It is very commonly said that
media is fourth pillar of democracy.
No democracy can survive
without the existence of free press.
It means media will work as fourth
pillar along with legislature, executive
and judiciary on the basis of
separation of power comprised
with mutual checks and balances
which is one of the basic theories of
democracy.
Media, as fourth estate of democracy-
I would like to say this saying
is just a prevalent and conventional
conception; it does not have any
legal or constitutional validity. Tell
me, in which constitution, it is
mentioned that mass media will
work as an institution which will
be kept as parallel to the other 3
prescribed pillars of democracy.
In order to this, Let us talk about
the biggest democratic constitution
of world, the Indian constitution;
our constitution does not mention
at all that free press will be here
which will work as fourth pillar in
India. Only our index of fundamental
rights under article 18, it is
said we will have the freedom of
expression for all citizens of country.
Only this one line of fundamental
right allows us to express
any thing against any individuals
or institutions. In the same way if
anyone has money or capital, he
can establish a media organization
or a newspaper to say anything
against anyone. Under this perception
the institutional establishment
of mass media organization has
nothing to do with the constitutional
requirement of the country.
Now we try to look into the status
of media in the context of public
requirement. The word mass
media literally means the media
for the masses. Do you think, in
India, media is really attached with
the all masses of the country;
means are all citizens of the country
networked with the mass
HOW WOULD BE
MEDIA ACCOUNTABLE
FOR
THE PUBLIC CAUSE
MANOHAR MANOJ
EDITOR, ECONOMY INDIA,
PRESIDENT-INDIAN YOUNG JOURNALISTS
ORGANISATION
We have several issues related to Mass Media, require
to be debated in the public forum. Media really needs
to to be redifined in many ways, because it is not a
full fledged fourth pillar of government, not a mission,
not a profession and not an industry, it is mix of all
Economy India _ Januray 2012 65
media, whether it is newspaper,
radio, TV or internet. Despite the
rapid growth of mass media still
only 20 percent of population read
newspaper in the country. Less
than 50 percent population view
TV or listen radio, less than 10 percent
population have access to
internet.
Second question is that, have concern
of all masses of the country
been covered in mass media in an
appropriate way? So far the size of
media coverage is concerned, in
India; media is still in the ambit of
mouthpiece arena rather than
medium for the masses. There is no
adequate space for the common citizen
other than politicians, film
stars and cricketers and some
newsmaker kind of things in our
mass media. What I mean to say,
India requires equality of expression
rather than freedom of expression,
equality of expression can
only guarantee the democratic
need of one billion people of the
country. Unfortunately it did not
happen in the country. In last 60
year, the journey of mass media
has been full of many hotchpotches.
Now we come on the second perception,
does mass media work as
a mission in India?. We always
expect mass media to work in a
missionary manner and thus we
want it to go all out against all
kinds of exploitations occurring in
the society, to oppose all kind of
injustice, to oppose all kind of maladministration
and bad governances,
irregularities, backwardness,
oppressions etc which are
occurring in the society. In order to
that media has to always work for
the betterment, for the welfare of
the masses. I think there are no
problems for the media to play
such kind of role rather media has
been doing this job quite nicely in
yesteryears. But the most important
question is who will sustain
the media? Who will be the caretakers
of media? Who will hold the
viability of mass media? Who will
guarantee the smooth career of all
media people who are working in
innumerable small, medium and
large media organizations of the
country?
Mass media organization need the
cost and return balances just like
any other business organizations.
Any mass media organization
whether it is newspaper or radio
station or TV channels or a news
website or outdoor media, it needs
investment on account of both
fixed capital and variable cost so
that it can be operated and sustained
for the longer period of
time. We all know that the selling
of newspaper, viewing of TV channels,
or subscribing of news website,
what we pay for them, It hardly
constitute a fraction of its total
cost. Newspaper is the only industry
in the world, which products
are sold at below cost of production.
Any manufacturing industry
despite the presence of a tough
competitive environment, always
have a cost plus pricing of their
product, but the newspaper industry
is exception. Though even in
some European countries, newspapers
are sold free of cost. There is
same case with the news channels,
what they get out of pay channel
subscription, it hardly constitute a
fraction of their cost. So under this
scenario how can we say mass
media can work as an industry?
We must know this fact; the majority
of costs of a media organization
come through advertisement. The
advertisement, which is a kind of
information which comes directly
from the informers and it, is paid
coverage items which may be contradictory
to the editorial contents
like news, analysis or investigation
reports or footages, which are
unpaid one.
Nowadays we hear a lot about
Paid news. There is big uproar
over it. I am not going to say this is
bad or good. But there are many
questions which have to be redefined
before the general public.
One must know that almost all
mass media are being feeded news
by PR companies and PR departments.
These organization work
for corporate, politician and political
parties, work for government
depts., NGO and social organizations,
film world etc. these agencies
take money out of these organization's
publicity budget. They
give their news and publicity
material to different Mass media
One must know that
almost all mass media
are being feeded news
by PR companies and
PR departments. These
organization work for
corporate, politician
and political parties,
work for government
depts., NGO and social
organizations, film
world etc. these agencies
take money out of
these organization's
publicity budget.
Raj Artha
Raj Artha
Economy India _ Januray 2012 66
under this very perception that
they will carry these news under
media's social commitment. I don't
say that under this process, media
people are not being pampered,
they are being given party and gift
etc. they are given priority while
giving facilities on the part of publicity
seeker organizations. But,
now media masters have decided
to take charges for those news coverage
especially during elections
time, which is being called paid
news. It is to be clearly stated, we
have plethora of news items, and
they all want to get publicized. In
this context media people and desk
coordinator play their power and
whims and fancies. In this circumstances,
what we see many valid
and remarkable news item are not
getting covered.
We all know lots of blackmailing
and bargaining are taking place
while covering any news items. It
is very difficult which are PR Kind
of news and which one is socially
and national important news. We
have many people who are ready
to expend their budget in order to
getting publicity of individuals or
product or organization. But we do
not have news ethics; it is left either
over tradition or over discretion of
media people. It is unfortunate we
have very few media people who
regard their media profession in a
missionary manner; they do not
have proper judgment and appropriate
observation regarding their
news planning, news selection and
its placement. For them media is
also just like another job.
The biggest difficulty under this
system is that one who does not
have paying capacity; his genuine
concern get ignored by the capitalist
media. I think if we have genuine
advertisement policy, at least
on the part of government, these
problems might have been averted.
The main parameter of today's
advertisement is number of circulation
and TRP. This is the root
cause of the entire problem. In
order to enhance circulation and
TRP, media become poised to carry
all sensational and spicy news to
any extent. So what we see media
are hugely after sex, violence and
all kind of yellow journalism
because they want to have more
and more readership and viewership
anyhow so that they can have
more say over advertisement. The
slab rates of advertisement are
decided shier on the basis of these
points. Govt. must give preference
to those kind of content of journalism
which can ensure the solemn
objectives of media, to provide
information, education, awareness,
knowledge and all kind of empowerment
which can raise voice
against all kinds of odds in forms
of injustice, exploitation, inequalities,
human rights and backwardness
etc. if good content being
made one of the fundamental criteria
for getting advt., many evils of
mass media will automatically go
away. But the problem is that
intention of government is not
good, they pamper only those
media who somehow favors govt.
The impartiality, neutrality, the
objectivity of coverage items and
wide public concern, these are the
factor which our media house must
follow and govt. should frame
media policy on this line.
Media can not fully
adopt missionary
approach, because it has
to survive financially. It
can not work as an
industry, because there
is a big gap between its
cost and return. It can
not work as fourth
estate of democracy
because it does not have
constitutional validity. It
can not adopt ethics,
because it has to blindly
go for high TRP in order
to generate revenue
Raj Artha
Economy India _ Januray 2012 67
Coming on the advertisement
front, we all know there is farce
competition among different
media set ups to garner more and
more advertisement. It is decided
by what, it is circulation numbers
for the print medium, it is TRP for
the TV channels, it is log in numbers
for the news website etc. The
TRP and circulation ratings are the
factors which are always on the top
of minds of all media organizations.
The idealistic perception of
news coverage, which is based on
giving priority to welfare of the
masses have gone to the backburner
now and all those coverage have
come in the forefront , which has a
more revenue potential for a media
organizations. In order to this, all
those coverage which has the
capacity to capture the psyche of
readers or audiences, are always
taken into account by the media
organizations. So we have always
high readership or viewer ship of
nude photograph, crime and sex
coverage and all the sensational
kind of thing which has nothing to
do with the lot of masses. This is as
much true as political party, who
opt those kind of issues in order to
attract and collect the people which
are very easy to use, like caste,
community, language and region
kinds of issues, these factors have
been always proved to be very
easy to galvanize the people . In
the same way it is very easy for a
mass media whether it is newspaper
or TV channel or a cinema to
sensationalize the public on sex,
violence nudity and various non
sense negative kinds of things
because people have psyche to get
in touch with this issue. It consequences
all ethics of mass media
gets buried and good media finds
it in hobnobbing situation.
We have many examples when a
media set up became popular
overnight by covering sensational
kind of things, a politician got popular
after the deliverance of riotous
speech. Under these circumstances
it is very difficult to decide an ideal
benchmark for a mass media
organization. It can not fully adopt
missionary approach, because it
has to survive financially. It can
not work as an industry, because
there is a big gap between its cost
and return. It can not work as
fourth estate of democracy because
it does not have constitutional
validity. It can not adopt ethics,
because it has to blindly go for
high TRP in order to generate revenue.
So ultimately a proper reconciliation
between market and public
interest is needed for the mass
media. It is true, both are contradictory
to each other, but the reality
is that a proper equilibrium is
always needed between them.
In the meantime what we see the
black money, the hawala money is
coming in a big way in Mass
Media, It is not the debt capital
from the commercial banks, which
is coming in media, Because this
black money holder knows it very
well that he is not going to get a
proper return over his black
money's investment, he only needs
a armory out of this investment in
media which could pass on his
other business and other activities
through the safe pass.
At last the plight of journalist especially
the career of young journalist
invites us for a very detail discussion.
I think the class who goes all
against all kind of exploitation prevailing
in the society, himself a
great exploited lot in many ways.
Our government, the main regulator
of our society, is stick with
accreditation and press club only
so far their intervention in mass
media is concerned. Govt should
go much beyond of it and must
provide a numbers of majors for
the complete welfare of all media
people in the country. thankyou
___
(This lecture was delivered by
Manohar Manoj, Editor& publisher,
Economy India, president,
Bharitya Yuva Patrakar Sangthan
on the eve of national press day
function, organized at
Bhubaneswar on 16-11-2011)

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